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Human CD34+ Progenitor Cells Freshly Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Attenuate Inflammatory Lung Injury following LPS Challenge  [PDF]
Xiaojia Huang, Kai Sun, Yidan D. Zhao, Stephen M. Vogel, Yuanling Song, Nadim Mahmud, You-Yang Zhao
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088814
Abstract: Adult stem cell-based therapy is a promising novel approach for treatment of acute lung injury. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of freshly isolated human umbilical cord blood CD34+ progenitor cells (fCB-CD34+ cells) in a mouse model of acute lung injury. At 3 h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, fCB-CD34+ cells were transplanted i.v. to mice while CD34? cells or PBS were administered as controls in separate cohorts of mice. We observed that fCB-CD34+ cell treatment inhibited lung vascular injury evident by decreased lung vascular permeability. In contrast, CD34? cells had no effects on lung vascular injury. Lung inflammation determined by myeloperoxidase activity, neutrophil sequestration and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators was attenuated in fCB-CD34+ cell-treated mice at 26 h post-LPS challenge compared to PBS or CD34? cell-treated controls. Importantly, lung inflammation in fCB-CD34+ cell-treated mice was returned to normal levels as seen in basal mice at 52 h post-LPS challenge whereas PBS or CD34? cell-treated control mice exhibited persistent lung inflammation. Accordingly, fCB-CD34+ cell-treated mice exhibited a marked increase of survival rate. Employing in vivo 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, we found a drastic induction of lung endothelial proliferation in fCB-CD34+ cell-treated mice at 52 h post-LPS compared to PBS or CD34? cell-treated controls, which contributed to restoration of vascular integrity and thereby inhibition of lung inflammation. Taken together, these data have demonstrated the protective effects of fCB-CD34+ cell on acute lung injury induced by LPS challenge, suggesting fCB-CD34+ cells are an important source of stem cells for the treatment of acute lung injury.
PARP-1 Inhibitor, DPQ, Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury through Inhibiting NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response  [PDF]
Gang Wang, Xiaojia Huang, Yongjin Li, Kangkang Guo, Pengbo Ning, Yanming Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079757
Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 has been demonstrated to be involved in tissue inflammation and one of its inhibitors, 3, 4-Dihydro-5[4-(1-piperindinyl)butoxy]-1(?2H)-isoquinoline(DPQ), exerts anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is still unclear whether the DPQ possesses the protective effect on ALI and what mechanisms are involved. In this study, we tested the effect of DPQ on the lung inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in mice. We found that 6 h-LPS challenge induced significant lung inflammation and vascular leakage in mice. Treatment with DPQ at the dose of 10 μg/kg markedly reduced the neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. LPS-elevated vascular permeability was decreased by DPQ treatment, accompanied by the inhibition of apoptotic cell death in mice lungs. In addition, we isolated mice peritoneal macrophages and showed pretreatment with DPQ at 10 μM inhibited the production of cytokines in the macrophages following LPS stimulation. DPQ treatment also inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by LPS in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our results show that DPQ treatment inhibits NF-κB signaling in macrophages and protects mice against ALI induced by LPS, suggesting inhibition of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 may be a potential and effective approach to resolve inflammation for the treatment of ALI.
2-phenylethynesulfonamide Prevents Induction of Pro-inflammatory Factors and Attenuates LPS-induced Liver Injury by Targeting NHE1-Hsp70 Complex in Mice  [PDF]
Chao Huang, Jia Wang, Zhuo Chen, Yuzhe Wang, Wei Zhang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067582
Abstract: The endotoxin-mediated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver disorders. Heat shock protein (Hsp70) overexpression has established functions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory response. However, little is known about the role of Hsp70 activity in LPS signaling. We hypothesized that inhibition of Hsp70 substrate binding activity can ameliorate LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing induction of pro-inflammatory factors. In this study, C57/BL6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with LPS and 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES), an inhibitor of Hsp70 substrate binding activity. We found that i. PES prevented LPS-induced increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and liver cell apoptosis; ii. PES reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression as well as serum nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) content in LPS-stimulated mice; iii. PES reduced the mRNA level of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated liver. iiii. PES attenuated the degradation of inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α) as well as the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in LPS-stimulated liver. Similar changes in the protein expression of inflammatory markers, IκB-α degradation, and NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation were observed in RAW 264.7 cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that PES remarkably reduced the elevation of [Ca2+]i and intracellular pH value (pHi) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, PES significantly reduced the increase in Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) association to Hsp70 in LPS-stimulated macrophages and liver, suggesting that NHE1-Hsp70 interaction is required for the involvement of NHE1 in the inflammation response. In conclusion, inhibition of Hsp70 substrate binding activity in vivo reduces the induction of pro-inflammatory factors and prevents LPS-induced liver injury likely by disrupting NHE1-Hsp70 interaction which consequently reduces the activation of IκB-α-NF-κB pathway in liver.
Protective effects of aerobic exercise on acute lung injury induced by LPS in mice
Cintia Reis Gon?alves, Carlos Reis Gon?alves, Francine de Almeida, Fernanda dos Santos Lopes, Ana dos Santos Dur?o, Fabiana dos Santos, Luiz da Silva, Tania Marcourakis, Hugo C Castro-Faria-Neto, Rodolfo Vieira, Marisa Dolhnikoff
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11807
Abstract: Mice were divided into four groups: Control (CTR), Exercise (Exe), LPS, and Exercise + LPS (Exe + LPS). Exercised mice were trained using low intensity daily exercise for five weeks. LPS and Exe + LPS mice received 200 μg of LPS intratracheally 48 hours after the last physical test. We measured exhaled nitric oxide (eNO); respiratory mechanics; neutrophil density in lung tissue; protein leakage; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts; cytokine levels in BALF, plasma and lung tissue; antioxidant activity in lung tissue; and tissue expression of glucocorticoid receptors (Gre).LPS instillation resulted in increased eNO, neutrophils in BALF and tissue, pulmonary resistance and elastance, protein leakage, TNF-alpha in lung tissue, plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10, and IL-1beta, IL-6 and KC levels in BALF compared to CTR (P ≤0.02). Aerobic exercise resulted in decreases in eNO levels, neutrophil density and TNF-alpha expression in lung tissue, pulmonary resistance and elastance, and increased the levels of IL-6, IL-10, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) and Gre in lung tissue and IL-1beta in BALF compared to the LPS group (P ≤0.04).Aerobic exercise plays important roles in protecting the lungs from the inflammatory effects of LPS-induced ALI. The effects of exercise are mainly mediated by the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antioxidants, suggesting that exercise can modulate the inflammatory-anti-inflammatory and the oxidative-antioxidative balance in the early phase of ALI.Acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe presentation, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are clinical disorders characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure associated with acute pulmonary inflammation secondary to several different etiologies and exhibit high mortality rates [1].The regular practice of exercise has been increasingly associated with beneficial effects on chronic pulmonary conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [2,3]. However,
Therapeutic Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Perfluorocarbon Emulsion on LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats  [PDF]
Shike Hou, Hui Ding, Qi Lv, Xiaofeng Yin, Jianqi Song, Ning Xu Landén, Haojun Fan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087826
Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are the leading causes of death in critical care. Despite extensive efforts in research and clinical medicine, mortality remains high in these diseases. Perfluorocarbon (PFC), a chemical compound known as liquid ventilation medium, is capable of dissolving large amounts of physiologically important gases (mainly oxygen and carbon dioxide). In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of intravenous infusion of PFC emulsion on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI in rats and elucidate its mechanism of action. Forty two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: 6 rats were treated with saline solution by intratracheal instillation (control group), 18 rats were treated with LPS by intratracheal instillation (LPS group) and the other 18 rats received PFC through femoral vein prior to LPS instillation (LPS+PFC group). The rats in the control group were sacrificed 6 hours later after saline instillation. At 2, 4 and 6 hours of exposure to LPS, 6 rats in the LPS group and 6 rats in LPS+PFC group were sacrificed at each time point. By analyzing pulmonary pathology, partial pressure of oxygen in the blood (PaO2) and lung wet-dry weight ratio (W/D) of each rat, we found that intravenous infusion of PFC significantly alleviated acute lung injury induced by LPS. Moreover, we showed that the expression of pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) of endothelial cells and CD11b of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) induced by LPS were significantly decreased by PFC treatment in vivo. Our results indicate that intravenous infusion of PFC inhibits the infiltration of PMNs into lung tissue, which has been shown as the core pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. Thus, our study provides a theoretical foundation for using intravenous infusion of PFC to prevent and treat ALI/ARDS in clinical practice.
Prevention of LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Progranulin  [PDF]
Zhongliang Guo,Qinchuan Li,Yang Han,Yongjie Liang,Zengguang Xu,Tao Ren
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/540794
Abstract: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a clinical complication of severe acute lung injury (ALI) in humans, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Despite decades of research, few therapeutic strategies for clinical ARDS have emerged. Here we carefully evaluated the effect of progranulin (PGRN) in treatment of ARDS using the murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. We reported that administration of PGRN maintained the body weight and survival of ALI mice. We revealed that administration of PGRN significantly reduced LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, as reflected by reductions in total cell and neutrophil counts, proinflammatory cytokines, as well as chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Furthermore, administration of PGRN resulted in remarkable reversal of LPS-induced increases in lung permeability as assessed by reductions in total protein, albumin, and IgM in BAL fluid. Consistently, we revealed a significant reduction of histopathology changes of lung in mice received PGRN treatment. Finally, we showed that PGRN/TNFR2 interaction was crucial for the protective effect of PGRN on the LPS-induced ALI. Our findings strongly demonstrated that PGRN could effectively ameliorate the LPS-induced ALI in mice, suggesting a potential application for PGRN-based therapy to treat clinical ARDS. 1. Introduction The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a clinically important complication of severe acute lung injury (ALI) in humans, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients [1–5]. Infectious etiologies, such as sepsis and pneumonia, are leading causes of ALI [1, 2, 5]. Histologically, ALI in humans is characterized by a severe acute inflammatory response in the lungs and neutrophilic alveolitis [1, 5]. The physiological hallmark of ARDS is disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane barrier, leading to development of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, in which a proteinaceous exudate floods the alveolar spaces, impairs gas exchange, and precipitates respiratory failure [1, 5–7]. ALI can result in persistent respiratory failure and prolonged dependence on mechanical ventilation, increasing susceptibility to multiorgan dysfunction and mortality [8]. Despite extensive investigation aimed at early diagnostic and pathogenetic factors of ALI, current management is mainly supportive, as specific therapies have not been identified [5, 9–13]. Animal models focused on ALI pathogenesis have yielded insights into mechanisms that initiate injury; however, little is
Oroxylin-A Rescues LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Regulation of NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Rodents  [PDF]
Tzu-Ling Tseng, Mei-Fang Chen, Ming-Jen Tsai, Yung-Hsiang Hsu, Chin-Piao Chen, Tony J. F. Lee
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047403
Abstract: Background and Purpose Successful drug treatment for sepsis-related acute lung injury (ALI) remains a major clinical problem. This study was designed to assess the beneficial effects of post-treatment of oroxylin A (OroA), a flavonoid, in ameliorating lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced lung inflammation and fatality. Experimental Approach Rats were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, iv) to induce ALI, and OroA was given (15 mg/kg, iv) 1 hr or 6 hrs after LPS challenge. Twenty four hrs after LPS challenge, biochemical changes in the blood and lung tissues, and morphological/histological alterations in the lung associated with inflammation and injury were examined. Therapeutic effect of OroA was assessed by measuring the survival rate in endotoxemic mice. Key Results LPS (10 mg/kg, iv) significantly altered WBC counts, elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO), increased pulmonary edema, thickened alveolar septa, and decreased survival rate. These changes were ameliorated by OroA (15 mg/kg, iv) administered 1 hr or 6 hrs after LPS challenge. This post-treatment also significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in lung tissues. Furthermore, post-treatment with OroA (60 mg/kg, ip) administered 1 hr or 6 hrs after LPS challenge in mice significantly increased survival rate. Conclusion and Implication OroA administered after induction of ALI by LPS significantly prevent and revere lung tissues injuries with increased survival rate. Positive post-treatment effects of OroA suggest that OroA is a potentially useful candidate for managing lung inflammation in LPS-induced endotoxemia and septic shock.
Cardioprotective Effect of Paeonol and Danshensu Combination on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats  [PDF]
Hua Li, Yan-Hua Xie, Qian Yang, Si-Wang Wang, Bang-Le Zhang, Jian-Bo Wang, Wei Cao, Lin-Lin Bi, Ji-Yuan Sun, Shan Miao, Jing Hu, Xuan-Xuan Zhou, Peng-Cheng Qiu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048872
Abstract: Background Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae Milthiorrhizaeare are prescribed together for their putative cardioprotective effects in clinical practice. However, the rationale of the combined use remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of paeonol and danshensu (representative active ingredient of Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae Milthiorrhizae, respectively) on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats and its underlying mechanisms. Methodology Paeonol (80 mg kg?1) and danshensu (160 mg kg?1) were administered orally to Sprague Dawley rats in individual or in combination for 21 days. At the end of this period, rats were administered isoproterenol (85 mg kg?1) subcutaneously to induce myocardial injury. After induction, rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (35 mg kg?1) to record electrocardiogram, then sacrificed and biochemical assays of the heart tissues were performed. Principal Findings Induction of rats with isoproterenol resulted in a marked (P<0.001) elevation in ST-segment, infarct size, level of serum marker enzymes (CK-MB, LDH, AST and ALT), cTnI, TBARS, protein expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and a significant decrease in the activities of endogenous antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST) and protein expression of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with paeonol and danshensu combination showed a significant (P<0.001) decrease in ST-segment elevation, infarct size, cTnI, TBARS, protein expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and a significant increase in the activities of endogenous antioxidants and protein expression of Bcl-2 and Nrf2 when compared with individual treated groups. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the cardioprotective effect of paeonol and danshensu combination on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The mechanism might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system through activating of Nrf2 signaling and anti-apoptosis through regulating Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3. It could provide experimental evidence to support the rationality of combinatorial use of traditional Chinese medicine in clinical practice.
Mechanical Ventilation Enhances HMGB1 Expression in an LPS-Induced Lung Injury Model  [PDF]
Ning Ding, Fang Wang, Hui Xiao, Lixin Xu, Shouzhang She
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074633
Abstract: Background Mechanical ventilation (MV) can augment inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged lungs. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a pro-inflammatory mediator in ventilator-induced lung injury, but its mechanisms are not well defined. This study investigated the role of HMGB1 in lung inflammation in response to the combination of MV and LPS treatment. Methods Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of four groups: sham control; LPS treatment; mechanical ventilation; mechanical ventilation with LPS treatment. Mechanically ventilated animals received 10 ml/kg tidal volumes at a rate of 40 breaths/min for 4 h. In the HMGB1-blockade study, sixteen rats were randomly assigned to HMGB1 antibody group or control antibody group and animals were subjected to MV+LPS as described above. A549 cells were pre-incubated with different signal inhibitors before subjected to 4 h of cyclic stretch. Lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, total protein and IgG concentration, number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histological changes were examined. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and HMGB1 in BALF were measured using ELISA. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to analyze mRNA and protein expression of HMGB1. Western blot were employed to analyze the activation of IκB-α, NF-κB, JNK, ERK, and p38. Results MV significantly augmented LPS-induced lung injury and HMGB1 expression, which was correlated with the increase in IL-1β, IL-6 and MIP-2 levels in BALF. In vivo, intratracheally administration of HMGB1 antibody significantly attenuated pulmonary inflammatory injury. In vitro experiments showed cyclic stretch induced HMGB1 expression through signaling pathways including p38 and NF-κB. Conclusions The findings indicated that moderate tidal volume MV augmented LPS induced lung injury by up-regulating HMGB1. The mechanism of HMGB1-mediated lung injury is likely to be signaling through p38 and NF-κB pathways.
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells reduce systemic inflammation and attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury in rats  [cached]
Li Jianjun,Li Dong,Liu Xiaomei,Tang Shuhai
Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-9-33
Abstract: Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties and simultaneously lack the ability to illicit immune responses. Hence, MSCs have emerged as a promising candidate for cellular therapeutics for inflammatory diseases. Within the context of this study, we investigated whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) could ameliorate lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in a rat model. Methods ALI was induced via injection of LPS. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) saline group(control), (2) LPS group, and (3) MSC + LPS group. The rats were sacrificed at 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lungs were collected for cytokine concentration measurements, assessment of lung injury, and histology. Results UC-MSCs increased survival rate and suppressed LPS-induced increase of serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 without decreasing the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The MSC + LPS group exhibited significant improvements in lung inflammation, injury, edema, lung wet/dry ratio, protein concentration, and neutrophil counts in the BALF, as well as improved myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung tissue. Furthermore, UC-MSCs decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) production and increased Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein production and activity in the lung tissue. Conclusion UC-MSCs noticeably increased the survival rate of rats suffering from LPS-induced lung injury and significantly reduced systemic and pulmonary inflammation. Promoting anti-inflammatory homeostasis and reducing oxidative stress might be the therapeutic basis of UC-MSCs.
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