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Yinpingmudan, the Wild Relative of the King of Flowers, Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews

HONG De-Yuan,PAN Kai-Yu,XIE Zhong-Wen,

中国科学院研究生院学报 , 1998,
Abstract: Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews subsp. spontanea (Rehder) S. G. Haw et L. A. Lauener ( =P. spontanea = P. jishanensis) has been considered as the wild form of widely cultivated P. suffruticosa. However, the subspecies differs from the cultivated one in shape, division and indumentum of leaves and reproductive biology. As a result of extensive field work, a form with two individuals in Yinping Shan, Caohu, Anhui, and Songxian, Henan, are found to be extremely similar to P. suffruticosa, but apparently different from P. jishanensis. The form is considered to be the wild one of P. suffruticosa and described as new: P. suffruticosa subsp, yinpingmudan Hong, K. Y. Pan et Z. W. Xie.
Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews 的界定,兼论栽培牡丹的分类鉴定问题
中国科学院研究生院学报 , 2004,
Abstract: 栽培牡丹一直称为Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews。 在把作丹皮用的栽培牡丹(凤丹)描述为新种P. ostii后,观赏的栽培牡丹仍然被统称为P. suffruticosa。 但在P. suffruticosa复合体内, P. rockii, P. jishanensis, P. qiui 和P. suffruticosa ssp. yinpingmudan 等野生类型相继被描述并得到承认。于是,有人提出了栽培牡丹多元发生的观点,同时也出现了P. suffruticosa “是牡丹组数
Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews 的界定,兼论栽培牡丹的分类鉴定问题
植物分类学报 , 2004,
Abstract: 栽培牡丹一直称为Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews。在把作丹皮用的栽培牡丹(凤丹)描述为新种P.ostii后,观赏的栽培牡丹仍然被统称为P.suffruticosa。但在P.suffruticosa复合体内,P.rockii,P.jishanensis,P.qiui和P.suffruticosa ssp.yinpingmudan等野生类型相继被描述并得到承认。于是,有人提出了栽培牡丹多元发生的观点,同时也出现了P.suffruticosa“是牡丹组数种植物复合体”的说法。本文在详细论述P.suffruticosa复合体分类历史的基础上,根据我们自己对野生类型和栽培类型的考察研究,认为观赏栽培牡丹的形成是多元的,并且包含几个物种;P.suffruticosa有明确的概念,它是观赏栽培牡丹的组成部分,而不代表栽培牡丹的全部,更不是数种植物的复合体。我们认为应根据形态特征正确鉴定观赏栽培牡丹,不应把它们一概鉴定为P.suffruticosa。通过文献和标本引证,文中界定了P.suffruticosa的范围。此外,把P.yinpingmudan(D.Y.Hong,K.Y.Pan&Z.W.Xie)B.A.Shen作为P.suffruticosa ssp.yinpingmudan D.Y.Hong,K.Y.Pan&Z.W.Xie的异名,并且认定P.yinpingmudan(D.Y.Hong,K.Y.Pan&Z.W.Xie)B.A.Shen ssp.henanensis(D.Y.Hong,K.Y.Pan&Z.W.Xie)B.A.Shen是不合法名称。
Dynamic changes in enzyme activities and phenolic content during in vitro rooting of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) plantlets  [PDF]
Songlin He
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The dynamic changes of phenolic content and peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), indole-3-acetic acid oxidase (IAAO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities were assessed during the in vitro rooting process of three cultivars of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.). These changes in enzyme-related activity and phenolic content__observed at the level of the whole plant__differed during the first 20 days of the rooting process in easy-to-root ‘Feng Dan Bai’ cultivar and difficult-to-root ‘Wu Long Peng Sheng’ and ‘Tai Ping Hong’ cultivars, and in most cases they were actually opposite. The ease with which ‘Feng Dan Bai’ was able to root was closely related to the activity of all four enzymes (POD, PPO, IAAO, PAL) as well as to the phenolic content.

Pel Yan-long Zou Yu-ping Yin Zhen Wang Xiao-quan Zhang Zhi-xian Hong De-yuan,Laboratory of Systematic,Evolutionary Botany,

植物分类学报 , 1995,
Abstract: Ten different oligonucleotide primers of arbitrary sequence were used in Capillary and Air Thermocycler to amplify genomic total DNA of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spon-tanea and P. rockii isolated from several local populations in Shanxi, Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Under the strictly standardized amplification condition for all the primers, these primers yielded clear and reproducible bands corresponding to amplified products and separable by agarose gel electrophoresis. Among a total of 71 bands amplified, 16(22. 5%) were polymorphic in a single individual of P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea, while among a total of 76 bands 21(27. 6%)were polymophic in a single individual of P. rockii. On an average, the pairwise marker difference between band profiles of conspecific individuals (different populations) was 7. 9 for P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and 8. 7 for P. rockii respectively. The average marker difference between P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and P. rockii was 10. 3. Obviously, greater number of plants and primers will be required to detect satisfactorily level of genetic diversity. These preliminary results showed that intraspecific genetic diversity was low for the two endangered species. RAPD as a molecular marker was useful and feasible for detecting the genetic variation within species of wild moutans. And it was also potential for studying evolution and relationships between species.
GC-MS analysis of essential oil of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews from ZhaoFen and RouFurong flowers in China  [PDF]
Weiping Yin, Wenlu Duan, Pu Liu, Ruixue Deng, Yunlai Ren, Shuang Zhao
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.48073
Abstract: The flowers of ZhaoFen and RouFurong may contain essential oils with natural aromatic ingredients. In the present work, the chemical compositions of essential oil of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews from the flowers of ZhaoFen and RouFurong grown only in China were investigated by GC-MS analysis. The results indicate that there are 27 constituents in ZhaoFen and 29 constituents in RouFurong, which account for 96.04% and 95.90% of the oils of ZhaoFen and RouFurong, respectively. The major components of the essential oils are character-rized by oxygenated terpenols, and their content is, respectively, 85.06% and 83.47%. The essential oil of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews was reported for the first time on the aerial parts.
Quercetin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (QODG) Inhibits Angiogenesis by Suppressing VEGFR2-Mediated Signaling in Zebrafish and Endothelial Cells  [PDF]
Chen Lin, Menghua Wu, Jianyong Dong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031708
Abstract: Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. Identification of small molecules that block angiogenesis and are safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. Hypericum attenuatum Choisy is a Chinese herb medicine commonly used for treating hemorrhagic diseases. The present study investigates the anti-angiogenic effects of quercetin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (QODG), a flavonoid isolated from Hypericum attenuatum Choisy, in vivo and in vitro, and clarifies the underlying mechanism of the activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Tg(fli1:EGFP) transgenic zebrafish embryos were treated with different concentrations of quercetin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (QODG) (20, 60, 180 μM) from 6 hours post fertilisation (hpf) to 72 hpf, and adult zebrafish were allowed to recover in different concentrations of QODG (20, 60, 180 μM) for 7 days post amputation (dpa) prior morphological observation and angiogenesis phenotypes assessment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with or without VEGF and different concentrations of QODG (5, 20, 60, 180 μM), then tested for cell viability, cell migration, tube formation and apoptosis. The role of VEGFR2-mediated signaling pathway in QODG-inhibited angiogenesis was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Conclusion/Significance Quercetin-4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (QODG) was shown to inhibit angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and zebrafish in vivo via suppressing VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2. Our results further indicate that QODG inhibits angiogenesis via inhibition of VEGFR2-mediated signaling with the involvement of some key kinases such as c-Src, FAK, ERK, AKT, mTOR and S6K and induction of apoptosis. Together, this study reveals, for the first time, that QODG acts as a potent VEGFR2 kinase inhibitor, and exerts the anti-angiogenic activity at least in part through VEGFR2-mediated signaling pathway.
Sequential Analysis of Double Indexes of Common and Variant Peak Ratios in Ultraviolet Fingerprint of Paeonia Suffruticosa Andr. Root Bark

Yuan Jiurong,Yue Chunhu,Zou Huabin,Wang Aiwu,

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To analyze the ultraviolet fingerprint of the root bark of Paeonia Suffruticosa Andr. and other medicinal crops of its kind by the method of sequential analysis of the double indexes of common and variant peak ratios in ultraviolet fingerprint. Method: In this article three solvents-Chloroform, absolute ethel alcohol and water are introduced to systematically extract the components of the root bark of Paeonia Suffruticosa Andr. and other medicinal plants of its kind in different polar zones, examine their ultraviolet fingerprints and study the differences of the samples. Result: This method is able to accurately identify the root bark of Paeonia Suffruticosa Andr. and other medicinal plants of its kind in detail. Conclusion: Tow or several samples can be reliably identified by the method of sequential analysis of the double indexes of common and variaut peak ratios.

LUO Yi Bo,PEI Yan Long,PAN Kai Yu,HONG De Yuan,

植物分类学报 , 1998,
Abstract: Field observation on pollination in three populations of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea in southern Shanxi Province showed that five species of bees in two families and four species of beetles were engaged in pollination. Examination on bodies of these insects under SEM, and seed set produced by controlled insect pollination indicated that the bees, especially the species in the genus Andrena were main pollinators and the beetles except those of small size were only fluctuating vectors.Flowers of this taxon are scented and nonectariferous.Flowers attracted bees and beetles mainly by pollen. A study on seed set in the three populations revealed considerable variation within and among populations. The plants were no apomict and autogamy,but geitonogamy sometimes could produce mature seeds (x=2.86 seeds per carpel). In the population with less flowers (less than 40 flowers), natural seed set (x=3.88) was close to the seed set produced by hand cross pollination (x=3.21), but in the population with more flowers(near 100 flowers) natural seed set (x= 2.48 ) was lower than that by hand cross pollination (x=3.21). The seed set was low for both natural and artificial cross pollination with only about one forth of ovules developing into seeds.
牡丹染色体的Ag-NORs和Giemsa C带的研究

Zhang Zanping,Li Maoxue,Yuan Jiazheng,

植物科学学报 , 1990,
Abstract: In this paper, the Ag-NORs and Giemsa C banding patterns of 5 cultivars in Paeonia suffruticosa and P. suffrugioos a var. papaveracea were reported for the first time. All of their karyotypes are 2n=2x=10=6m+2sm+2st. They have 6Ag-NORs which are different in location on chromosomes. The C banding patterns are also varied in 1, 2, 3 pair chromosomes. It was found that the numbers and locations of terminal bands (T) and AgNORs of chromosomes are same Therefore, T bands are actually N bands, and the satellites shown by normal stained are actually terminal NORs.
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