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A review of wound healing
A.Z. Hassan, E.I. Amber, C.A. Awasum, B.D. Remi-Adewumi, A.S Yila, F.B Hassan, B.M. Jahun
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Wounds have been credited to be the most common and frequent reason for seeking medical attention. This review highlights the existing information on several aspects of wound healing. While the review presents the traditional information on wounds such as the etiology, classification and stages involved in wound healing, it attempts to capture the current information on hitherto obscure aspects of the healing phenomena, such as, the role of growth factors. Also reviewed are several traditionally used substances or clinical practices that are in fact, injurious to wounds. KEY WORDS: A Review. Wound Healing (Nigerian Veterinary Journal: 2002 23(2): 1-14)
Mechanism of wound healing in annelids  [PDF]
M Grdisa
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2010,
Abstract: All animals possess some type of tissue repair mechanism. In some species, the capacity to repair tissues is limited to the healing of wounds, but others posses a striking repair capability to replace the entire organs. It has been reported that some mechanisms, namely extracellular matrix remodeling, appear to occur in most repair processes. However, it remains unclear to what extent the process of wound healing is similar to organ regeneration.
Fetal Wound Healing Biomarkers  [PDF]
Fernanda Rodrigues Helmo,Juliana Reis Machado,Camila Souza de Oliveira Guimar?es,Vicente de Paula Antunes Teixeira,Marlene Ant?nia dos Reis,Rosana Rosa Miranda Corrêa
Disease Markers , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/567353
Abstract: Fetal skin has the intrinsic capacity for wound healing, which is not correlated with the intrauterine environment. This intrinsic ability requires biochemical signals, which start at the cellular level and lead to secretion of transforming factors and expression of receptors, and specific markers that promote wound healing without scar formation. The mechanisms and molecular pathways of wound healing still need to be elucidated to achieve a complete understanding of this remodeling system. The aim of this paper is to discuss the main biomarkers involved in fetal skin wound healing as well as their respective mechanisms of action. 1. The Human Skin The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis, hemodynamic control, sensory reception, and innate and adaptive immunity. The skin is divided into two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis originates from the ectoderm and it is formed by different cell types. The dermis is derived from the mesoderm and is rich in dense connective tissues [1]. During embryonic development, the epidermis changes from a single layer of ectodermal cells at 7-8 days of gestation into a stratified, keratinized epithelium at 22–24 weeks of pregnancy [2]. Formation of hair follicles starts in the eighth week, and in the 12th week, the development of embryonic fibroblasts is organized in networks of collagen fibers [3, 4]. Type I collagen is the main component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) [5, 6] and it confers tensile strength [6]. Type I and type III collagen fibers are present in the fetal skin, and dermal fibroblast populations exhibit greater type I collagen compared to type III collagen staining [5]. Subsequently, the production of elastin by human skin fibroblasts increased from 7-fold to 14-fold between 17 and 19 weeks of pregnancy, reaching the levels found in neonatal skin fibroblasts [7]. The elastic tissue contributes to the structure of the fetal dermis and increases in quantity and complexity during intrauterine development [7]. With the advancement of the pregnancy, the number of epidermal cell layers increases and the hair follicles and sweat glands complete their maturation [8]. Fetal skin development is completed 30 weeks after conception [3, 9]. The complex maturation of human skin during fetal development is achieved by the action of chemical mediators. The organization and function of this organ may be compromised by numerous diseases or secondary mechanisms that lead to the loss of tissue continuity. The knowledge and understanding of the
Advances in Wound Healing: A Review of Current Wound Healing Products  [PDF]
Patrick S. Murphy,Gregory R. D. Evans
Plastic Surgery International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/190436
Abstract: Successful wound care involves optimizing patient local and systemic conditions in conjunction with an ideal wound healing environment. Many different products have been developed to influence this wound environment to provide a pathogen-free, protected, and moist area for healing to occur. Newer products are currently being used to replace or augment various substrates in the wound healing cascade. This review of the current state of the art in wound-healing products looks at the latest applications of silver in microbial prophylaxis and treatment, including issues involving resistance and side effects, the latest uses of negative pressure wound devices, advanced dressings and skin substitutes, biologic wound products including growth factor applications, and hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunct in wound healing. With the abundance of available products, the goal is to find the most appropriate modality or combination of modalities to optimize healing. 1. Introduction The field of wound care seemingly contains as many different treatment options and modalities as the number of practitioners caring for wounds. While many clinicians rely on and obtain good results with older “tried and true” treatments, there continues to be a constant flow of new products and technologies to add to the wound care armamentarium. Some of these products are updated and improved variations of previous treatments, while others are the result of entirely new fields of study. As with any new product, oftentimes the race to introduction into clinical use precedes adequate controlled study, and the efficacy is then defined by clinical experience. This can lead to unanswered questions regarding appropriate use and indications. This paper will discuss several new technologies in burn and wound care. Silver dressings are time honored in wound care, but new forms of delivery aim to increase the efficacy while minimizing side effects. We will also review some of the latest literature on emerging bacterial resistance to these products. Negative pressure wound devices are relatively new in wound care treatment, and their indications are continually expanding to encompass aspects of wound management that previously had very few options. Advanced wound dressing products can help alter the wound environment to optimize healing conditions. With the advent of biosynthetics and tissue engineering, skin substitutes are being created that not only provide novel effective temporary coverage of wounds, but are also changing the paradigm of wound management. By supporting the wound with growth factors
Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells  [cached]
Masahiro Iizuka,Shiho Konno
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i17.2161
Abstract: The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events; restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing.
Corneal epithelial wound healing.  [cached]
Agrawal Vinay,Tsai Ray
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2003,
Abstract: One of the important functions of the cornea is to maintain normal vision by refracting light onto the lens and retina. This property is dependent in part on the ability of the corneal epithelium to undergo continuous renewal. Epithelial renewal is essential because it enables this tissue to act as a barrier that protects the corneal interior from becoming infected by noxious environmental agents. The renewal process also maintains the smooth optical surface of the cornea. This rate of renewal is closely maintained by an integrated balance between the processes of corneal epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Attempts to understand this complex cascade make it evident that the appropriate integration and coordination of corneal epithelial renewal depends on the actions of a myriad of cytokines. We have attempted in this review to collate the receptor and cell signaling events and cytokine studies that are responsible for mediating corneal wound healing.
Wound healing activity of Lycopodium serratum  [cached]
Manjunatha B,Krishna V,Vidya S,Mankani K
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Wound healing activity of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of L. serratum was studied by excision, incision and dead space wound models on rats. As compared to aqueous and control group of animals, ethanol extract showed significant wound healing activity which was evidenced by significant decrease in the period of epithelialisation (17.84±0.06) and increase in wound contraction rate, skin breaking strength (581.45±4.98), granulation tissue breaking strength (512.80±5.08), dry weight of granulation tissue (47.23±0.10) and elevated concentration of hydroxyproline (2322.83±8.49). Histopathalogy of the granulation tissue of the ethanol extract treated animals showed few macrophages with increase in collagenation indicating the potency of the ethanol extract in promoting the process of wound healing. The present finding provides a scientific base to the ethno medicinal use of L. serratum.
Involvement of Notch Signaling in Wound Healing  [PDF]
Srinivasulu Chigurupati, Thiruma V. Arumugam, Tae Gen Son, Justin D. Lathia, Shafaq Jameel, Mohamed R. Mughal, Sung-Chun Tang, Dong-Gyu Jo, Simonetta Camandola, Marialuisa Giunta, Irina Rakova, Nazli McDonnell, Lucio Miele, Mark P. Mattson, Suresh Poosala
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001167
Abstract: The Notch signaling pathway is critically involved in cell fate decisions during development of many tissues and organs. In the present study we employed in vivo and cell culture models to elucidate the role of Notch signaling in wound healing. The healing of full-thickness dermal wounds was significantly delayed in Notch antisense transgenic mice and in normal mice treated with γ-secretase inhibitors that block proteolytic cleavage and activation of Notch. In contrast, mice treated with a Notch ligand Jagged peptide showed significantly enhanced wound healing compared to controls. Activation or inhibition of Notch signaling altered the behaviors of cultured vascular endothelial cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a scratch wound healing model in ways consistent with roles for Notch signaling in wound healing functions all three cell types. These results suggest that Notch signaling plays important roles in wound healing and tissue repair, and that targeting the Notch pathway might provide a novel strategy for treatment of wounds and for modulation of angiogenesis in other pathological conditions.
Wound healing activity of Leucas hirta  [cached]
Manjunatha B,Vidya S,Krishna V,Mankani K
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The wound healing efficacy of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Leucas hirta was evaluated in excision, incision and dead space wound models. The parameters studied include rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelialization, tensile strength of incision wound and granulation tissue, granulation tissue dry weight, hydroxyproline content and histological studies of granulation tissue. Among the two extracts studied, methanol leaf extract was found to possess significant wound healing activity followed by aqueous extract, which was evidenced by decrease in the period of epithelialization, increase in the rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight, hydroxyproline content and breaking strength of granulation tissue. Histopathological study of the granulation tissue evidenced increased collagenation when compared to control group of animals.
Complement Activation and Inhibition in Wound Healing  [PDF]
Gwendolyn Cazander,Gerrolt N. Jukema,Peter H. Nibbering
Journal of Immunology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/534291
Abstract: Complement activation is needed to restore tissue injury; however, inappropriate activation of complement, as seen in chronic wounds can cause cell death and enhance inflammation, thus contributing to further injury and impaired wound healing. Therefore, attenuation of complement activation by specific inhibitors is considered as an innovative wound care strategy. Currently, the effects of several complement inhibitors, for example, the C3 inhibitor compstatin and several C1 and C5 inhibitors, are under investigation in patients with complement-mediated diseases. Although (pre)clinical research into the effects of these complement inhibitors on wound healing is limited, available data indicate that reduction of complement activation can improve wound healing. Moreover, medicine may take advantage of safe and effective agents that are produced by various microorganisms, symbionts, for example, medicinal maggots, and plants to attenuate complement activation. To conclude, for the development of new wound care strategies, (pre)clinical studies into the roles of complement and the effects of application of complement inhibitors in wound healing are required.
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