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The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates  [cached]
Andover Margaret S,Morris Blair W,Wren Abigail,Bruzzese Margaux E
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-6-11
Abstract: Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed.
Reasons of Nurses’ Medication Errors and Persepectives of Nurses on Barriers of Error Reporting
Mina Hosseinzadeh,Parvane Ezate Aghajari,Nader Mahdavi
Hayat Journal of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery , 2012,
Abstract: Background & Aim: Administration of medications is an important part of treatment and care provided by nurses. Medication errors can create serious problems to patients and health system. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons of medication errors and the barriers of error reporting from nurses' viewpoints.Methods & Materials: In this study, we randomly selected five hospitals in Tabriz and Maragheh. Then, 200 nurses who were randomly selected for the study completed the study questionnaire. The questionnaire included 21 items about medication errors and 19 items about the barriers of error reporting, based on five degree Likert scale. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-15.Results: In this study, from the viewpoint of nurses, the most important reasons of medication errors were hospital units (3.70±0.84), shortages of nursing staff, nuring burn-out and high workload. Regarding barriers of error reporting, the most cited barriers were management factors (3.78±0.89), fear of legal issues, inappropriate definition of medication error and inappropriate reactions of authorities.Conclusion: We recommend increasing the number of nursing staff, adjusting the workload of nursing staff, using special forms for reporting errors and providing an atmosphere of intimacy between authorities and staffs.
Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people
Robert Young, Vincent Riordan, Cameron Stark
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-875
Abstract: A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.).Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services.While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact with psychiatric service.Mental health in adulthood may be significantly influenced by earlier life environments [1,2]. The importance of the childhood and adolescent environment has long been recognised. Attachment theory [3] emphasises the importance of the earliest relationships, and robust associations have been demonstrated between mental ill-health in adulthood and such childhood adversities as parental separation [4] and childhood maltreatment or abuse [5-9]. In more recent years variables from the perinatal environment have also been demonst
The impact of inpatient suicide on psychiatric nurses and their need for support
Chizuko Takahashi, Fuminori Chida, Hikaru Nakamura, Hiroshi Akasaka, Junko Yagi, Atsuhiko Koeda, Eri Takusari, Kotaro Otsuka, Akio Sakai
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-38
Abstract: Experiences with inpatient suicide were investigated using an anonymous, self-reported questionnaire, which was, along with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, administered to 531 psychiatric nurses.The rate of nurses who had encountered patient suicide was 55.0%. The mean Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score was 11.4. The proportion of respondents at a high risk (≥ 25 on the 88-point IES-R score) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 13.7%. However, only 15.8% of respondents indicated that they had access to post-suicide mental health care programmes. The survey also revealed a low rate of nurses who reported attending in-hospital seminars on suicide prevention or mental health care for nurses (26.4% and 12.8%, respectively).These results indicated that nurses exposed to inpatient suicide suffer significant mental distress. However, the low availability of systematic post-suicide mental health care programmes for such nurses and the lack of suicide-related education initiatives and mental health care for nurses are problematic. The situation is likely related to the fact that there are no formal systems in place for identifying and evaluating the psychological effects of patient suicide in nurses and to the pressures stemming from the public perception of nurses as suppliers rather than recipients of health care.Psychiatric disorders have been identified as among the strongest risk factors for suicide [1,2]. Psychiatric inpatients thus constitute a high-risk group for suicide attempts. For these reasons, nurses working in psychiatric hospitals and psychiatric wards are more prone to encounter suicidal ideation in patients and attempted or completed suicides than nurses in other departments.Previous studies have reported that patient suicide have a severe emotional impact in some psychiatrists and psychiatric trainees [3], and personal grief in therapists [4]. The completed suicide of a patient represents a critical event for a nurse who was in charge
Perspectives of Nurses on Barriers of Parental Participation in Pediatric Care: A Qualitative Study
Parvaneh Vasli,Mahvash Salsali,Parvin Tatarpoor
Hayat Journal of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery , 2012,
Abstract: Background & Objective: Parental participation in pediatric nursing is not ideally done due to several barriers. This qualitative study aimed to explore the barriers of parental participation in pediatric care during 2011-2012. Methods & Materials: This qualitative study was carried out using content analysis approach. Data were gathered through face to face semi-structured interviews with a sample of pediatric nurses (n=11) who were recruited through purposeful sampling from a pediatric hospital in Tehran. After gaining data saturation, data were analyzed using content analysis method. Results: Four main themes were emerged as barriers of parental participation in pediatric care including mutual motivation and interest in both parties (motivation and attitudes of nurses and interest in parents), management (lack of support for nurses, nursing shortage, nurses' workload, and poor teamwork between nurses and physicians), confidence in the nursing profession, and finally undefined role for mothers. Conclusion: Findings revealed the barriers of parental participation in caring for their hospitalized children. Managers and nurses can take advantages of these findings to improve and strengthen parental participation in pediatric care units during hospitalization.
Valoración del riesgo psicosocial en las enfermeras de nefrología de los hospitales de Sevilla Evaluation of the psychosocial risk in nephrology nurses in hospitals in Seville  [cached]
Eugenio Mesa de la Torre,Antonio Gálvez Díaz,Manuel ángel Calvo Calvo,Ma Dolores Vázquez Franco
Revista de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Enfermería Nefrológica , 2005,
Abstract: El objetivo general de este trabajo fue realizar una evaluación psicosocial del personal de enfermería de las unidades de nefrología de los hospitales “Virgen del Rocío” y “Virgen Macarena” de Sevilla, siendo los objetivos específicos del estudio describir la situación de este grupo en cuanto a clima laboral, tipo de conflictos del grupo, gestión de los conflictos, relación con el mando inmediato y bases de poder, acoso laboral y comparación entre las unidades de ambas instituciones. El estudio se realizó evaluando 66 encuestas contestadas por el personal de enfermería de los servicios de nefrología, de ambos hospitales. Las conclusiones obtenidas fueron las siguientes: 1. El clima laboral es una mezcla entre clima de apoyo y reglas. 2. El tipo de conflicto que predomina en la organización es de tareas sobre el afectivo. 3. El estilo de gestión para solucionar los conflictos es el de integración. 4. Las bases de poder están divididas entre formales e informales y el mando no es autoritario. 5. El acoso laboral es casi inexistente, siendo éste sobre la función laboral del trabajador, lo que provoca muy baja incidencia somática en el individuo. 6. Las diferencias halladas entre las dos unidades no son significativas. The general aim of this work was to conduct a psychosocial assessment of nursing staff in the nephrology units of the hospitals Virgen del Rocío and Virgen Macarena in Seville, the specific aims of the study being to describe the situation of this group as regards the working environment, type of group conflicts, conflict management, relations with immediate superiors and power bases, harassment and comparison between the units in the two hospitals. The study was carried out by assessing 66 surveys to which nephrology service nursing staff in both hospitals had responded. The conclusions obtained were as follows: 1. The working environment is a mixture of support and rules. 2. The predominating type of conflict in the organization relates to tasks rather than emotional. 3. The management style to resolve conflicts is integration. 4. The power bases are divided between formal and informal and command is not authoritarian. 5. Harassment is almost non-existent, and is directed at the employee’s work, which causes a very low somatic incidence on the individual. 6. The differences found between the two units are not significant.
Pain-Related Knowledge and Barriers among Jordanian Nurses: A National Study  [PDF]
Waddah Mohammad D’emeh, Mohammed Ibrahim Yacoub, Muhammad Waleed Darawad, Talal Haider Al-Badawi, Batool Shahwan
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.86058
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore Jordanian nurses’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pain assessment, and barriers to intervention at different hospitals representing health care sectors in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this study utilizing self-administered questionnaires to collect data from nurses working in public, University-affiliated, and private hospitals located on the north, mid, and south of Jordan using Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain, (n = 439). The mean of total correct answers on the 32 knowledge questions was 13.39 (SD = 4.31). Nurse-related barriers to effective pain management include patient history of alcohol abuse or drug addiction, and nursing staff reluctant to contact physician for analgesic order. Nurses working in surgical units, employed at private hospitals, holding a master degree, or who attended educational course or program scored significantly higher than other nurses. The results demonstrated knowledge deficit and attitude and that nurses underestimated and undertreated patients’ pain. Serious efforts should be taken in nursing schools and hospitals to prepare nurses and equip them with comprehensive knowledge tools to assess and manage pain appropriately.
Suicide and suicide risk factors: A literature review
SM Masango, ST Rataemane, AA Motojesi
South African Family Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Suicide can be defined as intentional self-inflicted death. 1 It is a serious cause of mortality worldwide. Suicide is considered as a psychiatric emergency and the awareness of the seriousness of suicide in our society should not be overlooked. It is a significant cause of death worldwide.1 It accounts for about 30,000 deaths annually in the USA and more than 5,000 deaths annually in South Africa,2 and the prevalence of suicide in our society is on the increase. Etiological factors for suicide include social, psychological and physical factors. But suicide is multi-factorial in nature.1 This review focuses mainly on the associated risk factors for suicide: demographic factors, psychiatric disorders, terminal or chronic medical conditions, and recurrent unresolved psychological stressors.3 Search strategy: The search strategy included research carried out internationally and in South Africa. Computerised database searches were utilised. These covered a wide range of health, educational, occupational and other areas of research. Recent major reviews on suicide and associated risk factors were located electronically and the references in such reviews scrutinised for the relevant articles. The sources of information included relevant textbooks of psychiatry, journals of psychiatry (both local and international), internet search engines like Medscape and Google, and abstracts from relevant articles. Definition of terms Suicide: self-inflicted death with evidence that the person intended to die.1,2 Suicide attempt: a self-injurious behaviour with a non-fatal outcome.1,2 Suicide ideation: thoughts about killing himself or herself. Suicide ideation may vary in seriousness depending on the specificity of suicide plans and the degree of suicide intent.1,2 Lethality of suicide behaviour: objective danger to life associated with a suicide method.1,2 Deliberate self harm: injurious act without the intent to die.1,2 South African Family Practice Vol. 50 (6) 2008: pp. 25-28
Psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries: health impact, priorities, barriers and solutions
Evelyn Kortum, Stavroula Leka, Tom Cox
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-010-0024-5
Abstract: Objectives: The current research explores experts' perceptions of psychosocial risks and work-related stress in emerging economies and developing countries1. This paper focuses on knowledge of potential health impact of psychosocial risks and preliminary priorities for action, and discusses potential barriers and solutions to addressing psychosocial risks and work-related stress in developing countries. Materials and Methods: This research applied a mixed methodology including semi-structured interviews, two rounds of an online Delphi survey, and four focus groups. Twenty nine experts with expertise in occupational health were interviewed. Seventy four experts responded to the first round of an online Delphi survey and 53 responded to the second round. Four groups of experts with a total of 37 active participants with specific or broader knowledge about developing country contexts participated in focus group discussions. Results: High concern was expressed for the need to address psychosocial risks and work-related stress and their health impact. Developing country experts' knowledge about these issues was comparable to knowledge from industrialized countries, however, application of expert knowledge was reported to be weak in developing countries. Socio-economic conditions were regarded as important considerations. Priorities to be addressed were identified, and barriers to implementing possible solutions were proposed. Conclusion: The future research and action paradigms in relation to psychosocial risk management will need to be broadened to include the larger social, political and economic contexts in developing countries beyond issues focusing solely on the working environment. Work-related psychosocial risks and the emerging priority of work-related stress should urgently be included in the research and political agendas and action frameworks of developing countries.
Barriers and facilitators of research utilization among nurses working in teaching hospitals in Tabriz
Vali Zadeh,L. (M.Sc),Zaman Zadeh,V. (M.Sc)
Hayat Journal of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery , 2002,
Abstract: This research is a descriptive study in order to assess barriers and facilitators of research utilization among nurses working in teaching hospitals in Tabriz, year 2001. The aim is to identify causes of low extent of utilization and also to assess barriers and facilitators of researches. This study was conducted upon 304 nurses working in 12 teaching hospitals of Tabriz, which were selected by random sampling. Instrument used for study was questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS (10). The results of this study showed that three major barriers for research utilization included: 1) inadequate facilities for implementation, 2) Physicians will not cooperate with implementation and 3) the nurses do not have sufficient time to read researches. Facilitators which nurses suggested, emphasized on the role of education in enhancing their knowledge and skills of research evaluation.
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