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Grouping of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Seed Stand Populations in Western Blacksea Region of Turkey by Seedling Morphological Distance  [PDF]
Sezgin Ayan,Hakan Oevik,Nebi Bilir
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Nine populations of Scots pine, sampled from Western Blacksea Region, were grouped by seedling morphological distance and cluster analysis in this study. For that purpose, number of cotyledon, lengths of cotyledon, epycotyl and hypocotyl and height, root-collar diameter, number of branch, stem and root dry weights were measured on two-month old, and one-year old seedlings chosen randomly. The differences among the populations for the characteristics of one-year old seedlings were larger than two-months old seedlings. For instance, while epycotyl length varied between 11.9 and 15.3 mm (difference was 11%), stem dry weight varied between 164.3 and 256.6 mg (56%) among populations. Morphological distance among populations varied between 0.297 and 5.288. In addition, populations were gathered two main groups which are Ankara-Yenice, Kastamonu-Ballidag and Adapazari-Dokurcun and the others and three sub groups according to cluster analysis. Results of the study could be used in breeding and afforestation of the species such as preparation of gene maps, determination of breeding populations, gene conservation areas and seed sources.
Interpopulation genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Serbia  [PDF]
Lu?i? Aleksandar,Isajev Vasilije,Cvjeti?anin Rade,Rakonjac Ljubinko
Genetika , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/gensr1101001l
Abstract: The genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Serbia was studied in the populations at five localities in western and south-western Serbia. Three groups of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations were differentiated based on genetic research (seed protein analysis) and plant community research. The first group consists of Scots pine populations on argan (FMU “ argan“) and on Tara (FMU “Kaluderske Bare”), where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and Austrian pine (Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavlovic 1951). The second group covers the localities Stolovi (FMU “Radocelo-Crepuljnik“) and Zlatar (FMU “Zlatar I“), where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and spruce (Piceo abietis-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1960). The third group comprises the Scots pine population on Pe ter (FMU “Dubocica-Bare“) which belongs to the community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963). Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of seed protein data and showed that there are three groups of Scots pine populations. The three populations coincide with plant communities. The community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963) recorded on Pe ter at the locality “Dubocica- Bare“ in the area of FE “Golija“ Ivanjica, is a special Scots pine population displayed at the greatest distance from all other populations in the cluster analysis dendrogram.
Polymorphism of Lithuanian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) with regard to monoterpene composition in needles
Violeta Ap egait , Vincas Būda
Ekologija , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/V10055-008-0004-2
Abstract: Interspecific interactions between Scots pine and other organisms depend much on tree chemistry, and monoterpenes play an important role in the interactions. Monoterpenes present in pine needles perform a defensive function against phytophagous animals (insects, molluscs, moose, deer) and the function of kairomones and synomones. A pilot study on the composition of monoterpenes in needles of 7-10-year old trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) from the Lithuanian population (within a relatively small area) was carried out using gas chromatography. The composition of 6 monoterpenes (α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, 3-carene and limonene) in needles was analysed, and the polymorphism of Scots pine was evaluated. With regard to monoterpene composition in needles, Scots pine were found to be polymorphic. The predominant monoterpenes were α-pinene and 3-carene. Their relative contents (of all the monoterpenes studied) varied from 27 to 79% and from 0 to 66%, respectively. Relative contents of α-pinene, 3-carene and β-pinene were found to be the most and those of myrcene and camphene the least variable. The relative content of limonene in needle extracts varied moderately. The variation in the relative content of 3-carene was found to be the greatest: in needles of some plants 3-carene was abundant (about 65.8% of the total amount of all the monoterpenes analysed), while in those of other plants this monoterpene was totally absent (or its content was below the level of chromatographic detection). The relative monoterpene composition in needles of Scots pine can be used for plant selection as well as for chemotype identification within the population.
Organelle Genetic Diversity and Phylogeography of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)  [cached]
Valentina FLORAN,Radu E. SESTRAS,María Rosario GARCíA GIL
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2011,
Abstract: The paper reviews the present knowledge of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) diversity, historical and geographical distribution, based on mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA data. The observed differences in the estimates of genetic differentiation between different types of genomes suggest that both pollen and seed contribute significantly to gene flow within species. Organelles’ diversity represents an important criterion which could be later applied in planning for future forest management and breeding through a better understanding of adaptation strategies of different Scots pine haplotypes. This analysis would provide valuable references when facing current day problems with climate change, species adaptation, and loss of forest with negative effects on biodiversity. Research on organelles’ diversity could lead to important practical applications in areas such as traceability and eco-certification of forest products, and the identification of plant populations for conservation. Based on the results from earlier investigations, Scots pine in Europe can be divided into at least three evolutionary units (Spain, northern/central Europe and northern Fennoscandia), each with a different origin after glaciations. However, it must be emphasized that these interpretations are preliminary and further mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA data need to be analyzed in conjunction with evidence from pollen and fossil analysis.
Application of various statistical methods to analyze genetic diversity of Austrian (Pinus nigra Arn.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) based on protein markers  [PDF]
Lu?i? Aleksandar,Isajev Vasilije,Rakonjac Ljubinko,Mataruga Milan
Genetika , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/gensr1103477l
Abstract: This paper presents the results of studies on protein polymorphism in seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) as the most important economic species of the genus Pinus in Serbia. Polymorphism of protein markers was determined in selected genotypes originating from seven populations (Scots pine) and six populations (Austrian pine). Analysis of protein markers was performed using two statistical methods, NTSYS and correspondence analysis. Both methods give the same arrangement of the analyzed populations, whereby, because of a different view of genetic distances, they can and should be combined, enabling easier and more precise understanding of mutual relationships of the observation units.
Harmful Insects and Relationships Between Certain Tree Properties in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of Ilgaz Mountain, Cankiri, Turkey  [PDF]
Yalcin Kondur,Nuri Oner,Ziya Simsek
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, five sample plots were selected from pure Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and DBH, height and crown diameter were measured on the live Scots pine trees, of which DBH was higher than 4 cm, in these sample plots in Ilgaz Mountain, Cankiri, Turkey. According to inspections on bark samples which obtained from Scots pines in sample plots and catches at the light trap, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.), Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), Pityogenes quadridens (Hartig) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Dendrolimus pini (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and Sphinx pinastri (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) were determined at stands of 15-45 cm dbh, 50-110 age, 30-50% slope, generally southeast and southwest aspects and at elevation of 1420-2080 m where Scots pine dominated. Regression analysis showed that there were statistically significant (p<0.001) and strong (R2>0.50) relationships between DBH, tree height and crown diameter variables in Scots pines. The strongest relationship determined was the crown diameter-tree height relationship (R2 = 0.977), followed by the tree height-DBH (R2 = 0.893) and crown diameter-DBH (R2 = 0.874) relationships, respectively.
Genetic divergence of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations in Serbia revealed by RAPD
Lu?i? A.,Isajev V.,Rakonjac L.,Risti? Danijela
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/abs1102371l
Abstract: The ability of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to distinguish among Scots pine populations from Serbia was evaluated. Sixteen arbitrary 10-mer primers employed in the analysis produced 54 fragments of which 21 were polymorphic (38.89%). Certain rare and genotype-specific bands were identified which could be effectively used to distinguish between the populations. Polymorphism in RAPD markers among P. sylvestris populations was high and sufficient to distinguish each of the populations. The results obtained suggest that RAPD markers are valuable for the genetic divergence estimation in Pinus sylvestris and for the study of divergence among populations.
Variation of morphological needle characters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations in different habitats
Lech Urbaniak,Leszek Karliński,Remigiusz Popielarz
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 2003, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.2003.005
Abstract: We investigated the phenotypic variation of five morphological needle characters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in three populations. Two of the populations occurred in bogs and the third one formed a degraded fresh pine forest showing some features of a dry pine forest. The greatest variation was found in characters a (needle length), b and d, denoting the number of stomatal rows respectively on the convex and flat sides of the needle. Conversely, characters c and e (average number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the convex and the flat side of the needle) were stable, with little interindividual variation. The two bog populations and the dryland population exhibited different sets of character correlations. The interpopulation differentiational detected on the basis of morphological character expression was markedly influenced by both the different edaphic conditions, and the distinct genetic structure of the studied populations.
Altitudinal variation of some morphological characters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Turkey
I Turna, D Güney
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the altitudinal variation within and between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations in Turkey using 23 morphological characters. Seeds were collected from 149 open-pollinated parents (trees) from five populations sampled from different altitudes in the natural distribution range of the species in northern Turkey and raised in a nursery along the coast. The populations were compared based on phenotypic variation of cones, seeds, seed-wings, juvenile seedlings and seedlings morphology, to study the pattern of natural variation of the species. ANOVA and Duncan test showed that the morphological characters differed by populations. Also, the cluster modeling performed on the morphological characters suggested that altitude was a major factor to differentiate the groups. This study showed that there were significant differences within and between the populations in P. sylvestris for the morphologic characters studied.
A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation  [PDF]
Feng Wang, Véronique Letort, Qi Lu, Xuefeng Bai, Yan Guo, Philippe de Reffye, Baoguo Li
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043531
Abstract: Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates.
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