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Implications of the Bakassi conflict resolution for Cameroon
F Baye
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2010,
Abstract: This paper sketches a conceptual framework of international conflict dynamics and resolution, examines the geopolitics of the Bakassi dispute between Nigeria and Cameroon, and outlines socio-economic implications of its peaceful settlement. Neglect and subsequent discovery of oil deposits subjected the Bakassi Peninsula to claims and counter-claims for sovereignty, military occupation and recourse to the International Court of Justice (ICJ). The ICJ’s ruling in 2002 in favour of Cameroon, although based on sound historical evidence, faced implementation difficulties. However, following mediation by the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, good faith by protagonists, the Green-tree Agreement and subsequent instruments, Nigeria completed the withdrawal of its military, police and administration from the Bakassi Peninsula by 14 August 2008. Putting aside disruptive activities by social movements, the entire process could be viewed as a model in peaceful resolution of border conflicts. Implications of the settlement anchor on expenditure-reducing and expenditure-switching effects, wealth-generating effects, and enhanced cross-border activities. Infrastructural developments and effective presence are considered.
Impacto del conflicto colombiano en los periodistas* Impact of the Colombian Armed Conflict in the Journalists
Ismael Roldán,Diana Sofía Giraldo,Miguel ángel Flórez
Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría , 2008,
Abstract: Introducción: Este artículo esboza las dificultades que presentan los periodistas colombianos en su trabajo y caracteriza el impacto del conflicto armado colombiano en su relación con este ejercicio profesional. Método: Los autores realizaron 70 entrevistas a algunos periodistas colombianos que cubren el conflicto. Para el análisis de las entrevistas se intentó entender la lógica de su conducta y cómo representan su profesión. Resultados: Las entrevistas se alan las dificultades y el impacto en la información y la libertad de prensa que se dan en una sociedad fragmentada azotada por el conflicto. El miedo, el dolor, la manipulación de la información, la intimidación y las amenazas de muerte que ejercen los actores armados sobre los periodistas hacen que la libertad de información y de prensa se restrinja y se sienta amenazada. Conclusión: Las violaciones a la libertad de prensa tienen un efecto inhibitorio para informar. Introduction: This article depicts the difficulties Colombian journalists face and characterizes the impact of the Colombian armed conflict in relationship to this profession. Method: The authors interviewed 70 Colombian journalists. For the purpose of analyzing the interviews an attempt was made to understand the logic of their behavior and the way they represent their profession. Results: The interviews expose the difficulties and the impact on information and on free press that take place in a fragmented society beset by armed conflict. The fear,pain, manipulation of information, intimidation and death threats that the armed actors exert on journalists restrict and threaten freedom of information and freedom of press. Conclusion: Violations of free press have an inhibitory effect on information.
Conflict over landownership: The case of farmers and cattle graziers in the northwest region of Cameroon
PM Sone
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2012,
Abstract: This article examines the general underlying principles of landownership in Cameroon and the northwest region in particular. It argues that the recurrent conflicts involving farmers and cattle graziers over landownership in the northwest region of Cameroon have their roots in scarcity of land, climate change and the ‘poor’ application of statutory laws guaranteeing landownership. Although some farmers have struggled to enjoy their right to use land, a culture of acknowledging their right to control land during land contention is yet to take hold. In some instances, the laws continue to be disregarded in favour of wealthy cattle graziers against farmers’ right to own land. This study argues that there cannot be peace, tenure, security and stability in the region without some attempt at resolving this perennial phenomenon of land conflict between farmers and cattle graziers. Resolving this problem will require the institution of land reform and some proactive measures to address the region’s landrelated conflicts.
The Relationship between journalists and PR practitioners in Romania – Somewhere in between co-operation and conflict  [cached]
Cristina COMAN
Essachess : Journal for Communication Studies , 2009,
Abstract: One constant idea emerges from all of the studies regarding the relationship between journalists and PR practitioners: this relationship is a complex and ambiguous one. It is quite obvious that both participants aim at holding control over the production and distribution of information; despite this aim, it is certain that none of the two can develop a monopoly over such a process. The inter-dependency between the actors involved in this game is based on the interest in mutual co-operation showed by each of the participants. This very study stands for the fact that by means of the values they referred to, the Romanian journalists and PR professionals express attitudes that are similar to those of their colleagues from other countries where these two professions have a longer tradition behind.
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2012,
Abstract: In the context in which human resources management has an international dimension, the paper briefly analyzes the process of training for magistrates, both from the perspective of general international principles, as well as from the perspective of national legislation. The importance of permanent development of training programs for magistrates is reflected in the professionalism of magistrates and assumes a certain adequacy to the specific needs of the judicial system. From this perspective, the training for magistrates has a compulsory feature not only in relation with the national or European legislation, but also is a practical need for adjustment to continuous changes that occur in the judicial relations, by legislative reforms, some radical, as a consequence of the dynamic social life.
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2013,
Abstract: The recent amendments in the applicable law on the disciplinary liability of the magistrates have induced many debates regarding the increase of holders that own the right to initiate the disciplinary action against a magistrate and also regarding the area of disciplinary offenses. The conferring of the status of holder of the disciplinary action to the Minister of Justice, the President of the High Court of Cassation and Justice and to the General Attorney of the Prosecutor’s Office of the High Court of Cassation and Justice, has conferred us the opportunity to present the impact of these legislative amendments on the legal environment. Therefore, the theme proposed through this study will be done by presenting the relevant legislation and the relevant constitutional jurisprudence.
Practice of the city magistrates in Belgrade regarding domestic violence
An?elkovi? Marija
Temida , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/tem0302045a
Abstract: In this paper author analyzes all cases of the city magistrates in Belgrade in 2002 which went into effect. The goal of this analysis is to determine how many cases are related to domestic violence and to define sentencing policy applied in these cases. In this analysis author pointed out problems and needs which exist in the work of the city magistrates. Also, some suggestions and recommendations for overcoming these problems are underlined.
The Personality of Journalists in Bangladesh
A.M. Zakaria Khan
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Following on from Henningham`s (1997) inquiry into the personality of Australian journalists, an attempt is made here to provide some insight into the characteristic tendencies of journalists in Bangladesh. Eysenck`s test of three personality dimensions was applied to a sample of 100 Bangladeshi journalists from various media organizations in the country. This study, which uses an extensive questionnaire on personality assessment, found Bangladeshi news personnel to be significantly less psychoticistic than the general people. However, on the question of Extraversion and Neuroticism, the news workers were found not to be significantly different from most people. No significant difference was found on the ‘lie` scale, which indicates a respondent`s tendency to dissimulate, between the journalists and the whole population.
The Protection of Journalists in Armed Conflicts: How Can They Be Better Safeguarded?
Isabel Düsterh?ft
Merkourios : Utrecht Journal of International and European Law , 2013,
Abstract: The years 2011 and 2012 were among the most deadly for journalists reporting from conflict situations worldwide. The numbers of assaults, arrests and attacks have been on a constant rise and portray a dramatic image of the journalistic profession. In light of the increasing threats in armed conflicts, being a war reporter has become an inherently dangerous task. Journalists are not only at risk of becoming so-called collateral damage during military operations, they are also increasingly targeted. Their role as a watchdog and witness to the horrors of war, in addition to the undeniable power of the word and image they spread, has made them popular targets. It is therefore essential that the international community re-evaluate journalists' de jure and de facto protections in armed conflicts to allow for better safeguards and consequently less casualties in the imminent future. This article examines the current protections afforded to journalists and aims at detecting proposals for enhanced safeguards that are most likely to effectively improve journalists' safety in the field. In this regard, this article will argue that the legal protections are in fact sufficient and hardly amendable and that therefore, a more practical, hands-on approach to implementation of those protections must be the focus of future actions. This goal can only be achieved by a comprehensive mission jointly pursued by governments, militaries, journalists, media, NGOs and society.
Young Journalists in Vojvodina  [cached]
Smiljana Milinkov
Medijske Studije , 2010,
Abstract: According to a recent study entitled, ”Professional Status of Young Journalists in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina”, the primary complaints of journalists thirty-years old and younger are overtime,small salaries, uneducated executives, censorship, and the infl uence of politics and advertisers on editorial policy. Most of the interviewees are not permanently employed, receiving some 200€ honoraria,and as they have mentioned, executives and editors do not suffi ciently trust them, nor are they aff orded adequate space to express themselves. While Serbia has enacted nominal steps toward democracy over the past ten years, and in the process has reduced the number of persecutions and arrests of journalists and punishments and cancellations of media, more than half of the young journalists surveyed have experienced restraints in freedom of speech while doing their job. Further, ten percent of those surveyed state that they are often censored. The basis of this examination emanates from research on the professional status of ”eternal freelancers”, conducted in 2009 by the Youth Development Fund (Razvojni fond za mlade – RFM) expert team, with the support from the Provincial Secretariat for Sport and Youth. In addition, a questionnaire has been filled out by over 50 young journalists from Vojvodina.
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