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Toxicity Study of Korean Ginseng Herbal medicine
E.A. Gadkariem,R.M. Al-Ashban,L.B. Babikir,H.I. Al-Joher
Research Journal of Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2010.86.90
Abstract: The toxicity studies of Korean ginseng capsules were evaluated in mice through examination of possible biochemical, hematological and histopathological changes. Acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity studies were undertaken by treating mice with a single dose of 300 mg kg-1 body weight for acute, 100 mg kg-1 body weight administered orally each other day for 7 days for sub-acute and an oral dose of 20 mg kg-1 body weight of the drug daily for 90 days for chronic toxicity studies. In acute, sub-acute and chronic treated mice, biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in all treated animals. Hematological studies revealed an increase in RBC and hemoglobin contents in the treated male group as compared to the control. Absent of signs of visceral toxicity and histopathology result confirmed that all the studied organs were normal compared to the control.
Utilization of Korean Wild Ginseng Adventitious Root Meal in Livestock
J.H. Cho,L. Yan,I.H. Kim
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3818.3822
Abstract: Owing to the restriction of most antibiotic feed additive for livestock in the European Union (EU) in 2006. A great effort has been devoted towards developing antibiotic alternatives to stabilize the health and growth performance in livestock. Therefore, various substances have been suggested such as feed enzymes, probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids and phytogenic feed additives among which phytogenic feed additive were generally consisted of herb, spices and botanical. The study is concerning a kind of herb named Korean wild ginseng which had already been used in Eastern Asia countries. Researchers reviewed the current state of knowledge of Korean wild ginseng as well as the understanding of mechanism involved in promotion of productivity and health statues of animals.
Ginseng for Health Care: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials in Korean Literature  [PDF]
Jiae Choi, Tae-Hun Kim, Tae-Young Choi, Myeong Soo Lee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059978
Abstract: Objective This systematic review was performed to summarise randomised clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy and safety of ginseng in the Korean literature. Method The study involved systematic searches conducted in eight Korean Medical databases. The methodological quality of all of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We included all RCTs on any type of ginseng compared to placebo, active treatment or no treatment in healthy individuals or patients regardless of conditions. Results In total, 1415 potentially relevant studies were identified, and 30 randomised clinical trials were included. Nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng on exercise capacity, cognitive performance, somatic symptoms, quality of life, and sleeping in healthy persons. Six RCTs tested ginseng compared with placebo for erectile dysfunction, while another four studies evaluated the effects of ginseng against no treatment for gastric and colon cancer. Two RCTs compared the effect of red ginseng on diabetes mellitus with no treatment or placebo, and the other nine RCTs assessed the effects of ginseng compared with placebo or no treatment on various conditions. The methodological caveats of the included trials make their contribution to the current clinical evidence of ginseng somewhat limited. However, the 20 newly added trials (66.7% of the 30 trials) may provide useful information for future trials. Ginseng appears to be generally safe, and no serious adverse effects have been reported. Conclusions The clinical effects of ginseng have been tested in a wide range of conditions in Korea. Although the quality of RCTs published in the Korean literature was generally poor, this review is useful for researchers to access studies that were originally published in languages that they would otherwise be unable to read and due to the paucity of evidence on this subject.
Molecular Mechanism of Macrophage Activation by Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide from Korean Red Ginseng
Se Eun Byeon,Jaehwi Lee,Ji Hye Kim,Woo Seok Yang,Yi-Seong Kwak,Sun Young Kim,Eui Su Choung,Man Hee Rhee,Jae Youl Cho
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/732860
Abstract: Red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP), isolated from Korean red ginseng, displays immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Even though numerous studies have been reported, the mechanism as to how RGAP is able to stimulate the immune response is not clear. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of molecular activation of RGAP in macrophages. RGAP treatment strongly induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells without altering morphological changes, although the activity was not strong compared to LPS-induced dendritic-like morphology in RAW264.7 cells. RGAP-induced NO production was accompanied with enhanced mRNA levels of iNOS and increases in nuclear transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, STAT-1, ATF-2, and CREB. According to pharmacological evaluation with specific enzyme inhibitors, Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins and inhibitory pattern using blocking antibodies, ERK, and JNK were found to be the most important signaling enzymes compared to LPS signaling cascade. Further, TLR2 seems to be a target surface receptor of RGAP. Lastly, macrophages isolated from RGS2 knockout mice or wortmannin exposure strongly upregulated RGAP-treated NO production. Therefore, our results suggest that RGAP can activate macrophage function through activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP-1 and their upstream signaling enzymes such as ERK and JNK.
Korean Red Ginseng Improves Blood Pressure Stability in Patients with Intradialytic Hypotension
I-Ju Chen,Ming-Yang Chang,Sheng-Lin Chiao,Jiun-Liang Chen,Chun-Chen Yu,Sien-Hung Yang,Ju-Mei Liu,Cheng-Chieh Hung,Rong-Chi Yang,Hui-Chi Chang,Chung-Hua Hsu,Ji-Tseng Fang
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/595271
Abstract: Introduction. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication during hemodialysis which may increase mortality risks. Low dose of Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been reported to increase blood pressure. Whether KRG can improve hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis has not been examined. Methods. The 8-week study consisted of two phases: observation phase and active treatment phase. According to prehemodialysis blood pressure (BP), 38 patients with IDH were divided into group A (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, n = 18) and group B (BP < 140/90 mmHg, n = 20). Patients were instructed to chew 3.5 gm KRG slices at each hemodialysis session during the 4-week treatment phase. Blood pressure changes, number of sessions disturbed by symptomatic IDH, plasma levels of vasoconstrictors, blood biochemistry, and adverse effects were recorded. Results. KRG significantly reduced the degree of blood pressure drop during hemodialysis (<0.05) and the frequency of symptomatic IDH (<0.05). More activation of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 and angiotensin II) during hemodialysis was found. The postdialytic levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II increased significantly (<0.01). Conclusion. Chewing KRG renders IDH patients better resistance to acute BP reduction during hemodialysis via activation of vasoconstrictors. Our results suggest that KRG could be an adjuvant treatment for IDH.
Protective effects of a gastrointestinal agent containing Korean red ginseng on gastric ulcer models in mice
Atsushi Oyagi, Kenjirou Ogawa, Mamoru Kakino, Hideaki Hara
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-45
Abstract: Stomach ulcers were induced by oral ingestion of hydrochloride (HCl)/ethanol or indomethacin. Treatment with KRGCD (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) occurred 1 hr before the ulcer induction. Effect of KRGCD on anti-oxidant activity and gastric mucosal blood flow with a laser Doppler flowmeter in mice stomach tissue was evaluated.KRGCD (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer compared with the vehicle-treated (control) group. KRGCD (100 and 300 mg/kg) also decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and increased gastric mucosal blood flow compared with the control group.These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of KRGCD on mice ulcer models can be attributed to its ameliorating effect on oxidative damage and improving effect of gastric mucosal blood flow.Korean ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng, C. A. Meyer) has been known to be a valuable and important folk medicine in East Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, for about 2000 years and is now one of the most extensively used botanical products in the world [1,2]. Korean red ginseng (KRG) is a ginseng that has been cultivated and aged for 4-6 years or more, and goes through an extensive cleaning, steaming, and drying process [3]. Among the several kinds of Panax ginseng products, KRG has the most potent multiple pharmacological actions for treating various human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes mellitus [4,5].Gastric ulcer is an illness that affects a considerable number of people worldwide. The etiological factors of this disorder include stress, smoking, alcohol, nutritional deficiencies, infections, and frequent and indiscriminate use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [6]. The pathogenesis of gastroduodenal ulcers is influenced by various aggressive and defensive factors, and gastric mucosal blood flow is an important factor regulating the gastr
Ginseng- Multipurpose Herb  [PDF]
Chhotaram Seervi,Rupali Kirtawade,Pandurang Dhabale,Pallavi salve.
Journal of Biomedical Sciences and Research , 2010,
Abstract: Ginseng is the most popular herb. Ginseng is often referred as the ultimate tonic; the herb boosts general well-being, immune function, libido, and athletic performance. Ginseng is popularly used for its adaptogenic, antineoplastic, immunomodulatory, cardiovascular, CNS, endocrine, and ergogenic effects, but these uses have not been confirmed by clinical trials. A number of ginseng species used in herbal products grow around the world. Some of these plants include American ginseng, Korean ginseng, Sanchi ginseng, Chikusetsu ginseng. Ginseng is also known as Siberian ginseng, devil's shrub, eleuthero, touch-me-not, and wild pepper. Ginseng has been used to improve the body's resistance to stress and to increase vitality. However, the mechanisms underlying ginseng's effects remain to be investigated. Biological effects of ginseng are due to its anti-inflammatory effects, antineurological effect, hypoglycemia effect. Research has shown that drinking a cup of hot ginseng tea has an anti-inflammatory effect.
Korean Red Ginseng Suppresses Metastasis of Human Hepatoma SK-Hep1 Cells by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 and Urokinase Plasminogen Activator
Yu-Ling Ho,Kun-Cheng Li,Wei Chao,Yuan-Shiun Chang,Guan-Jhong Huang
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/965846
Abstract: Korean red ginseng and ginsenosides have been claimed to possess wide spectrum of medicinal effects, of which anticancer effect is one. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antimetastatic effect of Korean red ginseng on human hepatoma as well as possible mechanisms. The inhibitory effect of the water extract of Korean red ginseng (WKRG) on the invasion and motility of SK-Hep1 cells was evaluated by the Boyden chamber assay in vitro. Without causing cytotoxicity, WKRG exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the invasion and motility, but not adhesion, of highly metastatic SK-Hep1 cells. Zymography analyses revealed significant downregulating effects on MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA activities in SK-Hep1 cells. Western blot analyses also showed that WKRG treatment caused dose-dependent decreases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expressions. Moreover, WKRG increased the levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and PAI-1. The present study not only demonstrated that invasion and motility of cancer cells were inhibited by WKRG, but also indicated that such effects were likely associated with the decrease in MMP-2/-9 and uPA expressions of SK-Hep1 cells.
The Ginseng Growing District, Taxation and Trade in Ancient Korea
YANG Jeong-Pil,YEO In-Sok
Korean Journal of Medical History , 2004,
Abstract: The very first record of ginseng in the Korean peninsula dates back to early 6th century A.D., with its concentration in Chinese sources. Regardless of the fact that the Korean ginseng was introduced to China before the birth of Christ, there is no writing about it for 500 years. This is because the Chinese substituted Korean ginseng for the Chinese one, which was cultivated around the Shangdang Area. The ginseng, however, is greatly influenced by natural environment and its native area being Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. It is believed that ginseng range from the northern mountains of Pyongando and Hamkyongdo provinces to the southern Taebaek and Sobaek mountains in Korea. Especially the area of Madasan(Baekdusan?) mountain was well-known for ginseng-growing district. The ginseng taxation of the Three Kingdoms period seems to have gone through certain changes along the development stages of the ancient state. The first taxation stage is estimated to be in the form of a tribute. Afterwards, as the governing power of central government was gradually strengthened in the subjugated places, there was a major replacement from tributary form to actual goods levy. The actual areas of such tributary collection is unknown, but the [Sejongshilok Chiriji](geographical records of Sejong chronicles) of the early Choson era indicates 113 prefectures and counties as those which submit ginseng to the central government. These administrations provide permissible clues to the historic background of ginseng-taxed regions of the Three Kingdoms. The ginseng trade also is estimated to have flourished in ancient Korea through the Han commanderies of China. However, the writings of Korean ginseng trade is non-existent until 6th century A .D., Such phenomenon can be attributed to few reasons. First, the Chinese took little interest in Korean ginseng as they believed they had their own native ginseng in China. Second, same ignorance resulted from its inflowing but new feature. Third, active communication became impossible as the Goguryo-China relations deteriorated overall after the closing of the commanderies. Nevertheless, ginseng eventually was properly introduced into China as the relations between two regions improved after the 5th century A .D., which led the Chinese to realize the difference between Chinese and Korean ginseng. So it is estimated that such causes generated the real beginning of ginseng records in the 6th century. Based on the remaining texts, it can be inferred that trade in the Three Kingdoms era usually was conducted in each kingdom were all differ
G?NSENG?N ?ZELL?KLER? VE SA?LIK üZER?NE ETK?LER? The Properties of Ginseng and Its Effects on Health
Ay?e Merve Yaman, Aysun Ta?demir
Sa?l?k Akademisi Kastamonu , 2017, DOI: 10.25279/sak.321750
Abstract: Ginseng is a botanical used with medicinal purposes in far eastern countries. It is thought to be the most effective resistance increasing plant against stress. It has been on the list of the most sold herbal products in the world. As a result, consumption of ginseng is constantly increasing. Today, ginseng based food supplements made from tablets are made from the roots of many well-known plant species such as Korean or Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng and American ginseng. It is known that ginseng generally increases physical and mental capacity in humans, reduces fatigue, provides physical strength, and increases resistance to stress and aging. . It is thought that most of the proposed effects of ginseng occur due to the ginsenosides found in ginseng.
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