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Modeling Tourist Travel Decisions in Brazil  [cached]
Moisés Vassallo,Alessandro Oliveira
Revista de Literatura dos Transportes , 2009,
Abstract: This study develops a discrete-choice model for tourism-related trips in order to provide a mapping of preferences and a profile of tourists in Brazil. By using microdata from a recently collected survey conducted by the Institute of Economic Research Foundation (FIPE), we investigate the behavior of domestic tourists from two empirical models: i. a choice model of domestic, routine, excursion and international trips, and ii. a choice model of touristic destination. Travel data were combined with information from respondents concerning income, travel habits and lifestyle, in order to pinpoint the factors of the individuals who leverage more touristic trips. Additionally, we conducted a study pointing the factors of competitiveness of tourist destinations with respect to capturing global market share. Based on the estimated models, it is possible to understand the profile of Brazilian tourists and to anticipate what impacts public policies aiming at inducing the industry would have on tourism demand in Brazil.[Paper in Portuguese]
Modeling tourist travel decisions in Brazil [paper in Portuguese]  [cached]
Moisés Diniz Vassallo,Alessandro V. M. Oliveira
Journal of Transport Literature , 2009,
Abstract: This study develops a discrete-choice model for tourism-related trips in order to provide a mapping of preferences and a profile of tourists in Brazil. By using microdata from a recently collected survey conducted by the Institute of Economic Research Foundation (FIPE), we investigate the behavior of domestic tourists from two empirical models: i. a choice model of domestic, routine, excursion and international trips, and ii. a choice model of touristic destination. Travel data were combined with information from respondents concerning income, travel habits and lifestyle, in order to pinpoint the factors of the individuals who leverage more touristic trips. Additionally, we conducted a study pointing the factors of competitiveness of tourist destinations with respect to capturing global market share. Based on the estimated models, it is possible to understand the profile of Brazilian tourists and to anticipate what impacts public policies aiming at inducing the industry would have on tourism demand in Brazil.
Affective Influences on Energy-Related Decisions and Behaviors  [PDF]
Tobias Brosch,Martin K. Patel,David Sander
Frontiers in Energy Research , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fenrg.2014.00011
Abstract: A successful energy transition will depend not only on the development of new energy technologies, but also on changes in the patterns of individual energy-related decisions and behaviors resulting in substantial reductions in energy demand. Across scientific disciplines, most theoretical approaches that try to understand energy-related decisions and behaviors focus mainly on cognitive processes, such as computations of utility (typically economic), the impact of cognitive heuristics, or the role of individual beliefs. While these models already explain important aspects of human decisions and behavior in the energy domain, we argue that an additional consideration of the contributions of emotional processes may be very fruitful for a deeper understanding of the issue. In this contribution, we outline a theoretical perspective on energy-related decisions and behaviors that integrates emotions, elicited by a cognitive-affective appraisal of the relevance of a situation, into a response system driving adaptive decisions and behaviors. We empirically investigate the explanatory power of the model variables to predict intentions to reduce energy use demonstrating that the appraisal–emotion variables are able to account for additional variance that is not explained by two established models focused on cognitive processes (theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory). Finally, we discuss how the appraisal–emotion approach may be fruitfully integrated with other existing approaches and outline some questions for future research.
The importance of habitat resistance for movement decisions in the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara  [cached]
Zajitschek Susanne RK,Zajitschek Felix,Clobert Jean
BMC Ecology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6785-12-13
Abstract: Background Movement behaviour can be influenced by a multitude of biotic and abiotic factors. Here, we investigate the speed of movement in relation to environmental and individual phenotypic properties in subadult common lizards (Lacerta vivipara). We aim to disentangle the importance of substrate, cover, humidity, basking opportunity and individual phenotype on moving tendencies in 12 treatment combinations, at which each lizard was tested. Results We find that movement behaviour depends on the starting conditions, the physical properties of the dispersal corridor, and on the individuals’ phenotype. Specifically, the presence of cover and substrate providing suitable traction in the corridor had positive effects on individual movement decisions. Additionally, we find high phenotypic variation in the propensity to move dependent on the presence of cover. Individual back patterns also strongly affected movement decisions in interaction with the physical properties of the dispersal corridor. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of understanding the habitat resistance for movement patterns, with humid habitats with covering vegetation providing the best conditions to initiate movement in the common lizard. In addition, population effects, differences in back pattern phenotype and individual plasticity were identified as key parameters influencing movement behaviour.
Estimating the malaria risk of African mosquito movement by air travel
Andrew J Tatem, David J Rogers, Simon I Hay
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-57
Abstract: Monthly data on climate at the World's major airports were combined with air traffic information and African malaria seasonality maps to identify, month-by-month, those existing and future air routes at greatest risk of African malaria-carrying mosquito importation and temporary establishment.The location and timing of recorded airport malaria cases proved predictable using a combination of climate and air traffic data. Extending the analysis beyond the current air network architecture enabled identification of the airports and months with greatest climatic similarity to P. falciparum endemic regions of Africa within their principal transmission seasons, and therefore at risk should new aviation routes become operational.With the growth of long haul air travel from Africa, the identification of the seasonality and routes of mosquito importation is important in guiding effective aircraft disinsection and vector control. The recent and continued addition of air routes from Africa to more climatically similar regions than Europe will increase movement risks. The approach outlined here is capable of identifying when and where these risks are greatest.Throughout history the opening of travel and trade routes between countries has been accompanied by the spread of diseases and their vectors [1,2]. Air travel has been identified as a prime factor in the global spread of both infectious and vector-borne diseases [3,4] and represents a longstanding concern [5]. Many recent disease vector invasions are suspected to have resulted from air travel [6-8] and, with continual rapid expansion in global air travel, the threat of future invasions should not be ignored. The public health and economic impacts of past disease vector invasions [2] are illustrated by Aedes aegypti's invasion of the Americas [7] and the escape of Anopheles gambiae to Brazil from Africa [9].The last 30 years has seen air travel to tropical regions of the World rise dramatically. International tourist arrival
Timing and Awareness of Movement Decisions: Does Consciousness Really Come Too Late?  [PDF]
Adrian G. Guggisberg,Ana?s Mottaz
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00385
Abstract: Since Libet's seminal observation that a brain potential related to movement preparation occurs before participants report to be aware of their movement intention, it has been debated whether consciousness has causal influence on movement decisions. Here we review recent advances that provide new insights into the dynamics of human decision-making and question the validity of different markers used for determining the onset of neural and conscious events. Motor decisions involve multiple stages of goal evaluation, intention formation, and action execution. While the validity of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) as index of neural movement preparation is controversial, improved neural markers are able to predict decision outcome even at early stages. Participants report being conscious of their decisions only at the time of final intention formation, just before the primary motor cortex starts executing the chosen action. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this is an artifact of Libet's clock method used for assessing consciousness. More refined methods suggest that intention consciousness does not appear instantaneously but builds up progressively. In this view, early neural markers of decision outcome are not unconscious but simply reflect conscious goal evaluation stages which are not final yet and therefore not reported with the clock method. Alternatives to the Libet clock are discussed that might allow for assessment of consciousness during decision making with improved sensitivity to early decision stages and with less influence from meta-conscious and perceptual inferences.
TATN-1 Mutations Reveal a Novel Role for Tyrosine as a Metabolic Signal That Influences Developmental Decisions and Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans  [PDF]
Annabel A. Ferguson,Sudipa Roy equal contributor,Kaitlyn N. Kormanik equal contributor,Yongsoon Kim equal contributor,Kathleen J. Dumas,Vladimir B. Ritov,Dietrich Matern,Patrick J. Hu,Alfred L. Fisher
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004020
Abstract: Recent work has identified changes in the metabolism of the aromatic amino acid tyrosine as a risk factor for diabetes and a contributor to the development of liver cancer. While these findings could suggest a role for tyrosine as a direct regulator of the behavior of cells and tissues, evidence for this model is currently lacking. Through the use of RNAi and genetic mutants, we identify tatn-1, which is the worm ortholog of tyrosine aminotransferase and catalyzes the first step of the conserved tyrosine degradation pathway, as a novel regulator of the dauer decision and modulator of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like (IGFR) signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations affecting tatn-1 elevate tyrosine levels in the animal, and enhance the effects of mutations in genes that lie within the daf-2/insulin signaling pathway or are otherwise upstream of daf-16/FOXO on both dauer formation and worm longevity. These effects are mediated by elevated tyrosine levels as supplemental dietary tyrosine mimics the phenotypes produced by a tatn-1 mutation, and the effects still occur when the enzymes needed to convert tyrosine into catecholamine neurotransmitters are missing. The effects on dauer formation and lifespan require the aak-2/AMPK gene, and tatn-1 mutations increase phospho-AAK-2 levels. In contrast, the daf-16/FOXO transcription factor is only partially required for the effects on dauer formation and not required for increased longevity. We also find that the controlled metabolism of tyrosine by tatn-1 may function normally in dauer formation because the expression of the TATN-1 protein is regulated both by daf-2/IGFR signaling and also by the same dietary and environmental cues which influence dauer formation. Our findings point to a novel role for tyrosine as a developmental regulator and modulator of longevity, and support a model where elevated tyrosine levels play a causal role in the development of diabetes and cancer in people.
Influences of Movement Behavior on Animal Distributions at Edges of Homogeneous Patches  [PDF]
Hilary C. Young,Tyler G. Reid,Lea A. Randall,Leanna E. Lachowsky,Danusha J. Foster,Chris J. Pengelly,Tanya Latty,Mary L. Reid
International Journal of Zoology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/602845
Abstract: We propose that changes in movement behavior may be a proximate mechanism that influences the accumulation of animals at habitat edges. We tested this idea with a combination of empirical and simulation experiments in a resource-free landscape. The movements of individual flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, were tracked across a paper arena edged with invisible tape until beetles crossed the edge. Movement behavior (step lengths and turn angles) and cumulative occupancy were analyzed according to distance from the edge. We found that beetles took smaller steps with larger turn angles near edges than in the center of the arena and that beetle distribution was highly biased towards the edge of the arena. We then tested two agent-based simulation models for each beetle: an edge-independent model and an edge-dependent model. Both models predicted less time spent at the edge than was observed. The proportion of time spent at edges depended on the propensity to cross the edge, which could not be explained by beetle body size or energetic condition. The distribution of animals with respect to habitat edges depends on many factors, but we suggest that proximate mechanisms such as movement behavior should be explicitly considered when interpreting animal distributions. 1. Introduction Movement of individuals is a critical factor for the population ecology of most organisms, affecting energy flow, distribution, and the genetic and demographic structure of populations [1–4]. Knowledge of the causes of movement behavior may be key in developing a full understanding of the spatial structure and dynamics of populations [1, 5–10]. For example, an increasingly large body of research finds that organisms generally move quickly and directly through low-quality habitats (e.g., [4, 11, 12]). This in turn predicts there will be fewer individuals in resource-poor than in resource-rich environments [5, 13], and many studies have found such a correspondence between movement behavior and population density (e.g., [14–18]). In addition to habitat quality, another key factor affecting the movement of organisms is the degree of permeability of the interface between habitats [16, 19–21]. Permeability is the tendency of the edge to inhibit or enhance organisms’ movement across it [19, 21–23] and it directly affects the degree to which organisms leave a particular habitat [12, 15, 19]. Borders that are readily crossed by dispersing individuals are considered to be soft or semipermeable edges, while those that are unlikely to be crossed are known as hard or impermeable. This
Eye Movement Monitoring Reveals Differential Influences of Emotion on Memory  [PDF]
Lily Riggs,Douglas A. McQuiggan,Adam K. Anderson,Jennifer D. Ryan
Frontiers in Psychology , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00205
Abstract: Research shows that memory for emotional aspects of an event may be enhanced at the cost of impaired memory for surrounding peripheral details. However, this has only been assessed directly via verbal reports which reveal the outcome of a long stream of processing but cannot shed light on how/when emotion may affect the retrieval process. In the present experiment, eye movement monitoring (EMM) was used as an indirect measure of memory as it can reveal aspects of online memory processing. For example, do emotions modulate the nature of memory representations or the speed with which such memories can be accessed? Participants viewed central negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and after a brief delay, memory was assessed indirectly via EMM and then directly via verbal reports. Consistent with the previous literature, emotion enhanced central and impaired peripheral memory as indexed by eye movement scanning and verbal reports. This suggests that eye movement scanning may contribute and/or is related to conscious access of memory. However, the central/peripheral tradeoff effect was not observed in an early measure of eye movement behavior, i.e., participants were faster to orient to a critical region of change in the periphery irrespective of whether it was previously studied in a negative or neutral context. These findings demonstrate emotion’s differential influences on different aspects of retrieval. In particular, emotion appears to affect the detail within, and/or the evaluation of, stored memory representations, but it may not affect the initial access to those representations.
The movement of patients across borders: challenges and opportunities for public health
Helble,Matthias;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2011, DOI: 10.2471/BLT.10.076612
Abstract: in a globalizing world, public health is no longer confined to national borders. in recent years we have observed an increasing movement of patients across international borders. the full extent of this trend is yet unknown, as data are sparse and anecdotal. if this trend continues, experts are convinced that it will have major implications for public health systems around the globe. despite the growing importance of medical travel, we still have little empirical evidence on its impact on public health, especially on health systems. this paper summarizes the most recent debates on this topic. it discusses the main forces that drive medical travel and its implications on health systems, in particular the impacts on access to health care, financing and the health workforce. this paper also offers guidance on how to define medical travel and how to improve data collection. it advocates for more scientific research that will enable countries to harness benefits and limit the potential risks to public health arising from medical travel.
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