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A proteomic analysis of the effect of radiation therapy on wound healing in women reconstructed with the TRAM flap  [PDF]
Bekka O. Christensen, Jens Overgaard, Henrik Vorum, Bent Honore, Tine E. Damsgaard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.411134

The incidence of breast cancer is still increasing, and with improved cancer treatment, more women live longer with the side effects of their treatment. The response of normal tissue to radiation continues for years after the treatment is completed. The influence of radiotherapy on the outcome of breast reconstructtive surgery remains unpredictable. The combination of two surgical sites of which one is previously irradiated, is rarely encountered in humans and thus compiles a unique opportunity to study the implications of irradiation followed by surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effect of radiation therapy on the proteins expressed in the wound tissue after a breast reconstruction. Ten patients were included in the study, all treated with radiotherapy after a mastectomy and breast reconstruction with a contralateral pedicled TRAM flap. Expanded poly-tetrafluoretylene polymer tubes were implanted for 10 days, subcutaneously, below the inframammary fold and below the donor site. The protein from the newly synthesized granulation tissue in the tubes was extracted and analyzed for differences in protein expression with 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 676 proteins were detected; of these, 4 proteins changed significantly and were successfully identified. TPM4 and APOA4 from the radiation treated tissue were shown to be significantly decreased, whereas IGKC and VDAC1 were found to be significantly increased. The proteomic technique combined with the ePTFE tube wound model can elucidate some of the molecular alterations in the wound healing induced by radiation therapy. The protein modifications of TPM4, APOA4, IGKC and VDAC1 may influence the cell proliferation, apoptosis and the inflammation of the tissue repair process. 

A review of wound healing
A.Z. Hassan, E.I. Amber, C.A. Awasum, B.D. Remi-Adewumi, A.S Yila, F.B Hassan, B.M. Jahun
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Wounds have been credited to be the most common and frequent reason for seeking medical attention. This review highlights the existing information on several aspects of wound healing. While the review presents the traditional information on wounds such as the etiology, classification and stages involved in wound healing, it attempts to capture the current information on hitherto obscure aspects of the healing phenomena, such as, the role of growth factors. Also reviewed are several traditionally used substances or clinical practices that are in fact, injurious to wounds. KEY WORDS: A Review. Wound Healing (Nigerian Veterinary Journal: 2002 23(2): 1-14)
Angelica Sinensis May Provide Protection Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Farzaneh Foroughinia,mohammadali Darvarpanah,mohammad Zarenezhad
Iranian Journal of Medical Hypotheses & Ideas , 2008,
Abstract: Increased oxidative stress and disturbed glutathione redox system play an important role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Depletion in intracellular levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) contributes to an increment in tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-stimulated-HIV-1-transcription, activation of HIV-1-replication, sensitivity to TNF-α-induced cell death, and impairment of CD4+ cell function and survival. Therefore, several studies have investigated the effect of GSH-enhancer agents such as N-acetyl cystein in the treatment of patients with HIV infection. With regard to the beneficial effects of Angelica sinensis, a Chinese medicinal herb, on GSH redox system and the pathogenic role of GSH depletion in HIV infection and the immunomodulator effects of active ingredients of this herb, we postulated that Angelica sinensis may be of value in the treatment of HIV-infected patients.
Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) on cerebral infarction
Yi-Chian Wu, Ching-Liang Hsieh
Chinese Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-6-32
Abstract: Danggui, the dried root of Angelica Sinensis (Radix Angelica Sinensis), is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb to enrich blood, promote blood circulation and treat blood deficiency pattern and menstrual disorders such as dysmenorrhea and irregular menstrual cycle [1]. Wilasrusmee et al. [2] reported that Danggui (105 μg/ml) plays an immunostimulatory role in mitogen-stimulated murine lymphocytes in vitro. Angelan, a purified polysaccharide component of Angelica nakai thought to improve immune function, increases the expression of cytokines in splenocytes as Angelan enhances and the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) of activated macrophages, helper T cells and natural killer cells [3]. The chemical constituents of the Danggui extract are classified into essential oil and water soluble parts including lipid compounds, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids and other constituents [4]. The most active ingredients are polysaccharides, Z-Ligustilide (3-butylidene-4,5-dihydrophthalide) and ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamicacid) [1].This article aims to provide an overview of the pharmacological effects of Danggui in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores.We searched Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (Chinese language database) between 1990 and 2010, using 'Angelica sinensis', 'Danggui', 'Angelica polysaccharides', 'Z-Ligustilide', 'Ferulic acid' and 'Ischemic stroke' as keywords.Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which includes three different isoforms, namely endothelial NOS (eNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) [5]. While nNOS and eNOS are induced under different conditions, their activation relies on intracellular Ca2+ for binding calmodulin [5,6]. Due to its vasodilative effects, eNOS is considered neuro-protective [6]. Hypertension and a lack of endothelium-derived relaxing factor activi
Mechanism of wound healing in annelids  [PDF]
M Grdisa
Invertebrate Survival Journal , 2010,
Abstract: All animals possess some type of tissue repair mechanism. In some species, the capacity to repair tissues is limited to the healing of wounds, but others posses a striking repair capability to replace the entire organs. It has been reported that some mechanisms, namely extracellular matrix remodeling, appear to occur in most repair processes. However, it remains unclear to what extent the process of wound healing is similar to organ regeneration.
Optimization and Comparison of Five Methods for Extraction of Coniferyl Ferulate from Angelica sinensis  [PDF]
Jing-Jing Xie,Jia Lu,Zheng-Ming Qian,Yue Yu,Jin-Ao Duan,Shao-Ping Li
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14010555
Abstract: Coniferyl ferulate, which is noted for its multiple pharmacological activities and chemical instability, is abundant in Angelica sinensis. In this paper, five methods, namely sonication extraction (SE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), hydrodistillation (HD) and decoction (DC) for extraction of coniferyl ferulate, as well as ferulic acid, Z/E-ligustilide and Z/E-butylidenephthalide, from A. sinensis were optimized and compared. The results showed that the order of extraction efficiency was: PLE?SE>SFE>>HD, DC. The compositions of the SE, PLE and SFE extracts, which had a high ratio of coniferyl ferulate, were very similar, while no coniferyl ferulate was obtained by HD and DC, though they had high selectivity for the extraction of ligustilide and ferulic acid, respectively. It was noteworthy that the content of ligustilide and coniferyl ferulate was not detectable in the decoction, the commonly used oral administration form of Traditional Chinese Medicines in clinical practice.
Fetal Wound Healing Biomarkers  [PDF]
Fernanda Rodrigues Helmo,Juliana Reis Machado,Camila Souza de Oliveira Guimar?es,Vicente de Paula Antunes Teixeira,Marlene Ant?nia dos Reis,Rosana Rosa Miranda Corrêa
Disease Markers , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/567353
Abstract: Fetal skin has the intrinsic capacity for wound healing, which is not correlated with the intrauterine environment. This intrinsic ability requires biochemical signals, which start at the cellular level and lead to secretion of transforming factors and expression of receptors, and specific markers that promote wound healing without scar formation. The mechanisms and molecular pathways of wound healing still need to be elucidated to achieve a complete understanding of this remodeling system. The aim of this paper is to discuss the main biomarkers involved in fetal skin wound healing as well as their respective mechanisms of action. 1. The Human Skin The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis, hemodynamic control, sensory reception, and innate and adaptive immunity. The skin is divided into two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis originates from the ectoderm and it is formed by different cell types. The dermis is derived from the mesoderm and is rich in dense connective tissues [1]. During embryonic development, the epidermis changes from a single layer of ectodermal cells at 7-8 days of gestation into a stratified, keratinized epithelium at 22–24 weeks of pregnancy [2]. Formation of hair follicles starts in the eighth week, and in the 12th week, the development of embryonic fibroblasts is organized in networks of collagen fibers [3, 4]. Type I collagen is the main component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) [5, 6] and it confers tensile strength [6]. Type I and type III collagen fibers are present in the fetal skin, and dermal fibroblast populations exhibit greater type I collagen compared to type III collagen staining [5]. Subsequently, the production of elastin by human skin fibroblasts increased from 7-fold to 14-fold between 17 and 19 weeks of pregnancy, reaching the levels found in neonatal skin fibroblasts [7]. The elastic tissue contributes to the structure of the fetal dermis and increases in quantity and complexity during intrauterine development [7]. With the advancement of the pregnancy, the number of epidermal cell layers increases and the hair follicles and sweat glands complete their maturation [8]. Fetal skin development is completed 30 weeks after conception [3, 9]. The complex maturation of human skin during fetal development is achieved by the action of chemical mediators. The organization and function of this organ may be compromised by numerous diseases or secondary mechanisms that lead to the loss of tissue continuity. The knowledge and understanding of the
Advances in Wound Healing: A Review of Current Wound Healing Products  [PDF]
Patrick S. Murphy,Gregory R. D. Evans
Plastic Surgery International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/190436
Abstract: Successful wound care involves optimizing patient local and systemic conditions in conjunction with an ideal wound healing environment. Many different products have been developed to influence this wound environment to provide a pathogen-free, protected, and moist area for healing to occur. Newer products are currently being used to replace or augment various substrates in the wound healing cascade. This review of the current state of the art in wound-healing products looks at the latest applications of silver in microbial prophylaxis and treatment, including issues involving resistance and side effects, the latest uses of negative pressure wound devices, advanced dressings and skin substitutes, biologic wound products including growth factor applications, and hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunct in wound healing. With the abundance of available products, the goal is to find the most appropriate modality or combination of modalities to optimize healing. 1. Introduction The field of wound care seemingly contains as many different treatment options and modalities as the number of practitioners caring for wounds. While many clinicians rely on and obtain good results with older “tried and true” treatments, there continues to be a constant flow of new products and technologies to add to the wound care armamentarium. Some of these products are updated and improved variations of previous treatments, while others are the result of entirely new fields of study. As with any new product, oftentimes the race to introduction into clinical use precedes adequate controlled study, and the efficacy is then defined by clinical experience. This can lead to unanswered questions regarding appropriate use and indications. This paper will discuss several new technologies in burn and wound care. Silver dressings are time honored in wound care, but new forms of delivery aim to increase the efficacy while minimizing side effects. We will also review some of the latest literature on emerging bacterial resistance to these products. Negative pressure wound devices are relatively new in wound care treatment, and their indications are continually expanding to encompass aspects of wound management that previously had very few options. Advanced wound dressing products can help alter the wound environment to optimize healing conditions. With the advent of biosynthetics and tissue engineering, skin substitutes are being created that not only provide novel effective temporary coverage of wounds, but are also changing the paradigm of wound management. By supporting the wound with growth factors
Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells  [cached]
Masahiro Iizuka,Shiho Konno
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i17.2161
Abstract: The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events; restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing.
Corneal epithelial wound healing.  [cached]
Agrawal Vinay,Tsai Ray
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2003,
Abstract: One of the important functions of the cornea is to maintain normal vision by refracting light onto the lens and retina. This property is dependent in part on the ability of the corneal epithelium to undergo continuous renewal. Epithelial renewal is essential because it enables this tissue to act as a barrier that protects the corneal interior from becoming infected by noxious environmental agents. The renewal process also maintains the smooth optical surface of the cornea. This rate of renewal is closely maintained by an integrated balance between the processes of corneal epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Attempts to understand this complex cascade make it evident that the appropriate integration and coordination of corneal epithelial renewal depends on the actions of a myriad of cytokines. We have attempted in this review to collate the receptor and cell signaling events and cytokine studies that are responsible for mediating corneal wound healing.
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