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Models of the aging brain structure and individual decline  [PDF]
Gabriel Ziegler,Christian Gaser
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2012.00003
Abstract: The aging brain’s structural development constitutes a spatiotemporal process that is accessible by MR-based computational morphometry. Here we introduce basic concepts and analytical approaches to quantify age-related differences and changes in neuroanatomical images of the human brain. The presented models first address the estimation of age trajectories, then we consider inter-individual variations of structural decline, using a repeated measures design. We concentrate our overview on preprocessed neuroanatomical images of the human brain to facilitate practical applications to diverse voxel- and surface-based structural markers. Together these methods afford analysis of aging brain structure in relation to behavioral, health, or cognitive parameters.
Affect Sensing on Smartphone - Possibilities of Understanding Cognitive Decline in Aging Population  [PDF]
Rajib Rana,John Reilly,Raja Jurdak,Wen Hu,Xue Li,Jeffrey Soar
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Due to increasing sensing capacity, smartphones offer unprecedented opportunity to monitor human health. Affect sensing is one such essential monitoring that can be achieved on smartphones. Information about affect can be useful for many modern applications. In particular, it can be potentially used for understanding cognitive decline in aging population. In this paper we present an overview of the existing literature that offer affect sensing on smartphone platform. Most importantly, we present the challenges that need to be addressed to make affect sensing on smartphone a reality.
Loneliness and the rate of motor decline in old age: the rush memory and aging project, a community-based cohort study
Aron S Buchman, Patricia A Boyle, Robert S Wilson, Bryan D James, Sue E Leurgans, Steven E Arnold, David A Bennett
BMC Geriatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-77
Abstract: At baseline, loneliness was assessed with a 5-item scale in 985 persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal community-based cohort study. Annual detailed assessment of 9 measures of muscle strength and 9 motor performances were summarized in a composite measure of global motor function.Linear mixed-effects models which controlled for age, sex and education, showed that the level of loneliness at baseline was associated with the rate of motor decline (Estimate, -0.016; S.E. 0.006, p = 0.005). For each 1-point higher level of loneliness at baseline, motor decline was 40% more rapid; this effect was similar to the rate of motor decline observed in an average participant 4 years older at baseline. Furthermore, this amount of motor decline per year was associated with about a 50% increased risk of death. When terms for both feeling alone (loneliness) and being alone were considered together in a single model, both were relatively independent predictors of motor decline. The association between loneliness and motor decline persisted even after controlling for depressive symptoms, cognition, physical and cognitive activities, chronic conditions, as well as baseline disability or a history of stroke or Parkinson's disease.Among community-dwelling older persons, both feeling alone and being alone are associated with more rapid motor decline, underscoring the importance of psychosocial factors and motor decline in old age.Loss of motor function is a common consequence of aging and is associated with adverse health consequences[1-5]. The specific motor abilities impaired in old age vary and encompass a wide spectrum including loss of muscle strength and bulk, balance, dexterity and reduced gait speed which can occur even in the absence of overt diseases[6-8]. By 2030, 20% of Americans, roughly 72 million people, will be 65 years of age or older[9], and by the age of 80 years or older, the fastest growing segment, 40% or more will
Decline of VOC Concentrations with the Aging of Houses in Japan  [PDF]
Motoya Hayashi, Haruki Osawa
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412A1004

The purpose of this investigation is to know the long-term characteristics of VOC concentrations in houses built before the building code in 2003 and to clarify the countermeasures against indoor air pollution in the houses already built. For example, the improvements of living habits, ventilation and the remove of building materials. The concentrations of VOCs were measured in these houses in summer and winter from 2000 to 2005. The results showed that the concentration of formaldehyde decreased in the first year. After that the decline of the concentration was not seen and the concentration changed only with the temperature. The characteristics of decline were thought to be caused by two sorts of emission. One is an emission of concealed formaldehyde in the process of material production and the other is an emission with the generation of formaldehyde from adhesives of urea resin and moisture. The concentration of toluene decreased rapidly in the first year. The concentrations of xylene, ethyl-benzene and styrene showed a similar change. But the concentrations of acetaldehyde which were measured from the summer of 2002 did not decrease and its concentration in some houses was higher than the guideline even in the winter of 2005.

The Hippocampal Neuroproteome with Aging and Cognitive Decline: Past Progress and Future Directions  [PDF]
Heather D. VanGuilder,Willard M. Freeman
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2011.00008
Abstract: Although steady progress on understanding brain aging has been made over recent decades through standard anatomical, immunohistochemical, and biochemical techniques, the biological basis of non-neurodegenerative cognitive decline with aging remains to be determined. This is due in part to technical limitations of traditional approaches, in which only a small fraction of neurobiologically relevant proteins, mRNAs or metabolites can be assessed at a time. With the development and refinement of proteomic technologies that enable simultaneous quantitative assessment of hundreds to thousands of proteins, neuroproteomic studies of brain aging and cognitive decline are becoming more widespread. This review focuses on the contributions of neuroproteomic investigations to advances in our understanding of age-related deficits of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. Accumulating neuroproteomic data demonstrate that hippocampal aging involves common themes of dysregulated metabolism, increased oxidative stress, altered protein processing, and decreased synaptic function. Additionally, growing evidence suggests that cognitive decline does not represent a “more aged” phenotype, but rather is associated with specific neuroproteomic changes that occur in addition to age-related alterations. Understanding if and how age-related changes in the hippocampal neuroproteome contribute to cognitive decline and elucidating the pathways and processes that lead to cognitive decline are critical objectives that remain to be achieved. Progress in the field and challenges that remain to be addressed with regard to animal models, behavioral testing, and proteomic reporting are also discussed.
Public Health and the Aging Family  [PDF]
Toni C. Antonucci,Kristin M. Wong
Public Health Reviews , 2010,
Abstract: The role of the family in the health of its members is critical from birth to death. This review focuses on the aging family, recognizing that the family is one of the earliest and longest lasting contexts infl uencing health. In particular, we emphasize the changing demographics of the family including the increased numbers of older family members and the decreased number of children. We consider how best to adapt to the changing family so that its critical role in maintaining individual and public health can be retained and enhanced. We begin by highlighting the importance of taking both a life span and life course perspective, recognizing that individuals develop and change over their lifetime. At the same time, they are members of groups and organizations, which shape their life course. We next consider the dramatically changing demographics of the population generally and within families specifically. We reflect on how these changes impact public health both positively and negatively, taking into account the potential of the family as a resource and a risk factor. We next consider five life course epidemiological models of health: the immediate effects model, the social trajectory model, the cumulative biological model, the sensitive period or latency model and the physiological effects of trajectory model. We explicitly consider the relevance of these models for the family and its aging members. Finally, we highlight what we consider the most important implications of these issues for the health and well-being of older adults and families in an aging society.
Risk and protective factors associated with cognitive decline in aging - a systematic review of literature  [PDF]
Priscila Martins Foroni,Patricia Leila dos Santos
Revista Brasileira em Promo??o da Saúde , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review, in SciELO and PubMed databases, about the cognitive and linguistic changes associated with aging, focusing on risk and protective factors. Methods: Articles conducted with people aged 60 or more and published between 2002 and 2008 were searched in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: 72 studies were reviewed in 38 different journals, being 9.7% (7) from national journals and 90.3% (65) from international ones, and 26.3% (10) in the area of Neurology, 23.7% (9) Geriatrics and Aging, 13.2% (5) Epidemiology and Public Health, 10.5% (4) Psychiatry and the rest from magazines of different health issues. The longitudinal design was used in 51.3% (37) and the cross-sectional one, in 36.1% (26). About the data collection instruments, 48.6% (35) of the works used the Mini-Mental State Examination, 15.1% (11) used the Verbal Fluency Test, 12.5% (9) the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 9.7% (7) the Boston Naming Test and 13.8% (10) Geriatric Depression Scale. We identified relationships between cognition in aging and biological factors in 69.4% (50) of the researches. Some studies have indicated increased likelihood of cognitive impairment among elderly people with depressive symptoms and among smokers. Studies have shown a positive effect of education and participation in physical and social activities on cognition. Conclusions: Studies in the analyzed period specifically investigated the relationship between biological risk factors and cognitive decline. Little attention was given to linguistic changes and protective factors associated with aging.
The equivalence of numbers: The social value of avoiding health decline: An experimental web-based study
David LB Schwappach
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-2-3
Abstract: 127 individuals completed an interactive survey that was published in the World Wide Web. They were confronted with a standard gamble (SG) and three person trade-off tasks, either comparing improvements in health (PTO-Up), avoided decline (PTO-Down), or both, contrasting health changes of equal magnitude differing in the direction in which they are experienced (PTO-WAD). Finally, a direct priority ranking of various interventions was obtained.Participants strongly prioritized improving patients' health rather than avoiding decline. The mean substitution rate between health improvements and avoided decline (WAD) ranged between 0.47 and 0.64 dependent on the intervention. Weighting PTO values according to the direction in which changes in health are experienced improved their accuracy in predicting a direct prioritization ranking. Health state utilities obtained by the standard gamble method seem not to reflect social values in resource allocation contexts.Results suggest that the utility of being cured of a given health state might not be a good approximation for the societal value of avoiding this health state, especially in cases of competition between preventive and curative interventions.In the era of aging populations and rising incidence of progressive diseases in industrialized countries, health politicians in these countries are increasingly faced with the decision what fraction of their budgets to spend on treatment and cure or on avoiding (further) health decline. Therefore, health economic analysis aimed at informing policy makers and supporting resource allocation decisions has to evaluate not only improvements in health but also prevented decline. The benefit of these "upward-movements" on a health scale compared to avoided "downward-movements" is often calculated as the potential gain in QALYs ("quality-adjusted life years"). Traditionally the standard gamble (SG) or the time trade-off (TTO) method is used to determine the quality of life weights needed
Cognitive Aging and Mental Health in the Elderly

Li Deming,Chen Tianyong,

心理科学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: Cognitive function and mental health are two essential elements of healthy aging. Cognitive functions accelerated declined with increased age. Studies on mechanism of cognitive aging indicated that processing speed, working memory and executive function play important roles in the normal aging of cognitive abilities. The level of mental health and life satisfaction in most of the elderly was relatively high, and the state of mind tended to quiet and satisfaction with increased age. However, more attention should be paid to mental health problems in empty nest and/or single living elderly. Cognitive function and mental health of the elderly were influenced by many factors. These results provide useful suggestions on how to moderate the decline of cognitive functions and keep mental health of the elderly.
Bone Health Nutrition Issues in Aging  [PDF]
Karen Plawecki,Karen Chapman-Novakofski
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2111086
Abstract: Bone health is an important issue in aging. Calcium and vitamin D currently have the most focus in published research on nutrition and bone health in aging, although evidence from published research is not conclusive. A systematic review was conducted to determine the impact of dietary and supplemental interventions focused on calcium and vitamin D over the past 10 years. Using key words to search, and search limits (aging?population, English), 62 papers were found related to diet, nutrition, and bone; and 157 were found related to calcium and bone. Our review found a positive effect on bone health for supplements; food-based interventions; and educational strategies. Although there may be a publishing bias related to non-significant findings not being published, our results suggest the effectiveness of food based and educational interventions with less economic impact to the individual, as well as less risk of physiological side effects occurring.
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