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Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models  [PDF]
Matthew J. Johnson,Alan S. Willsky
Statistics , 2012,
Abstract: There is much interest in the Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden Markov Model (HDP-HMM) as a natural Bayesian nonparametric extension of the ubiquitous Hidden Markov Model for learning from sequential and time-series data. However, in many settings the HDP-HMM's strict Markovian constraints are undesirable, particularly if we wish to learn or encode non-geometric state durations. We can extend the HDP-HMM to capture such structure by drawing upon explicit-duration semi-Markovianity, which has been developed mainly in the parametric frequentist setting, to allow construction of highly interpretable models that admit natural prior information on state durations. In this paper we introduce the explicit-duration Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM) and develop sampling algorithms for efficient posterior inference. The methods we introduce also provide new methods for sampling inference in the finite Bayesian HSMM. Our modular Gibbs sampling methods can be embedded in samplers for larger hierarchical Bayesian models, adding semi-Markov chain modeling as another tool in the Bayesian inference toolbox. We demonstrate the utility of the HDP-HSMM and our inference methods on both synthetic and real experiments.
Infinite Structured Hidden Semi-Markov Models  [PDF]
Jonathan H. Huggins,Frank Wood
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: This paper reviews recent advances in Bayesian nonparametric techniques for constructing and performing inference in infinite hidden Markov models. We focus on variants of Bayesian nonparametric hidden Markov models that enhance a posteriori state-persistence in particular. This paper also introduces a new Bayesian nonparametric framework for generating left-to-right and other structured, explicit-duration infinite hidden Markov models that we call the infinite structured hidden semi-Markov model.
Minimax Adaptive Estimation of Nonparametric Hidden Markov Models  [PDF]
Yohann De Castro,élisabeth Gassiat,Claire Lacour
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider stationary hidden Markov models with finite state space and nonparametric modeling of the emission distributions. It has remained unknown until very recently that such models are identifiable. In this paper, we propose a new penalized least-squares estimator for the emission distributions which is statistically optimal and practically tractable. We prove a non asymptotic oracle inequality for our nonparametric estimator of the emission distributions. A consequence is that this new estimator is rate minimax adaptive up to a logarithmic term. Our methodology is based on projections of the emission distributions onto nested subspaces of increasing complexity. The popular spectral estimators are unable to achieve the optimal rate but may be used as initial points in our procedure. Simulations are given that show the improvement obtained when applying the least-squares minimization consecutively to the spectral estimation.
Nonparametric identification and maximum likelihood estimation for hidden Markov model  [PDF]
Grigory Alexandrovich,Hajo Holzmann,Anna Leister
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Nonparametric identification and maximum likelihood estimation for finite-state hidden Markov models are investigated. We obtain identification of the parameters as well as the order of the Markov chain if the transition probability matrices have full-rank and are ergodic, and if the state-dependent distributions are all distinct, but not necessarily linearly independent. Based on this identification result, we develop nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation theory. First, we show that the asymptotic contrast, the Kullback--Leibler divergence of the hidden Markov model, identifies the true parameter vector nonparametrically as well. Second, for classes of state-dependent densities which are arbitrary mixtures of a parametric family, we show consistency of the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator. Here, identification of the mixing distributions need not be assumed. Numerical properties of the estimates as well as of nonparametric goodness of fit tests are investigated in a simulation study.
Consistent estimation of the filtering and marginal smoothing distributions in nonparametric hidden Markov models  [PDF]
Yohann De Castro,Elisabeth Gassiat,Sylvain Le Corff
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the filtering and smoothing recursions in nonparametric finite state space hidden Markov models (HMMs) when the parameters of the model are unknown and replaced by estimators. We provide an explicit and time uniform control of the filtering and smoothing errors in total variation norm as a function of the parameter estimation errors. We prove that the risk for the filtering and smoothing errors may be uniformly upper bounded by the risk of the estimators. It has been proved very recently that statistical inference for finite state space nonparametric HMMs is possible. We study how the recent spectral methods developed in the parametric setting may be extended to the nonparametric framework and we give explicit upper bounds for the L2-risk of the nonparametric spectral estimators. When the observation space is compact, this provides explicit rates for the filtering and smoothing errors in total variation norm. The performance of the spectral method is assessed with simulated data for both the estimation of the (nonparametric) conditional distribution of the observations and the estimation of the marginal smoothing distributions.
Nonparametric inference in hidden Markov models using P-splines  [PDF]
Roland Langrock,Thomas Kneib,Alexander Sohn,Stacy DeRuiter
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are flexible time series models in which the distributions of the observations depend on unobserved serially correlated states. The state-dependent distributions in HMMs are usually taken from some class of parametrically specified distributions. The choice of this class can be difficult, and an unfortunate choice can have serious consequences for example on state estimates, on forecasts and generally on the resulting model complexity and interpretation, in particular with respect to the number of states. We develop a novel approach for estimating the state-dependent distributions of an HMM in a nonparametric way, which is based on the idea of representing the corresponding densities as linear combinations of a large number of standardized B-spline basis functions, imposing a penalty term on non-smoothness in order to maintain a good balance between goodness-of-fit and smoothness. We illustrate the nonparametric modeling approach in a real data application concerned with vertical speeds of a diving beaked whale, demonstrating that compared to parametric counterparts it can lead to models that are more parsimonious in terms of the number of states yet fit the data equally well.
Interleaved Factorial Non-Homogeneous Hidden Markov Models for Energy Disaggregation  [PDF]
Mingjun Zhong,Nigel Goddard,Charles Sutton
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: To reduce energy demand in households it is useful to know which electrical appliances are in use at what times. Monitoring individual appliances is costly and intrusive, whereas data on overall household electricity use is more easily obtained. In this paper, we consider the energy disaggregation problem where a household's electricity consumption is disaggregated into the component appliances. The factorial hidden Markov model (FHMM) is a natural model to fit this data. We enhance this generic model by introducing two constraints on the state sequence of the FHMM. The first is to use a non-homogeneous Markov chain, modelling how appliance usage varies over the day, and the other is to enforce that at most one chain changes state at each time step. This yields a new model which we call the interleaved factorial non-homogeneous hidden Markov model (IFNHMM). We evaluated the ability of this model to perform disaggregation in an ultra-low frequency setting, over a data set of 251 English households. In this new setting, the IFNHMM outperforms the FHMM in terms of recovering the energy used by the component appliances, due to that stronger constraints have been imposed on the states of the hidden Markov chains. Interestingly, we find that the variability in model performance across households is significant, underscoring the importance of using larger scale data in the disaggregation problem.
Posterior consistency for nonparametric hidden Markov models with finite state space  [PDF]
Elodie Vernet
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper we study posterior consistency for different topologies on the parameters for hidden Markov models with finite state space. We first obtain weak and strong posterior consistency for the marginal density function of finitely many consecutive observations. We deduce posterior consistency for the different components of the parameter. We also obtain posterior consistency for marginal smoothing distributions in the discrete case. We finally apply our results to independent emission probabilities, translated emission probabilities and discrete HMMs, under various types of priors.
Factorized Asymptotic Bayesian Inference for Factorial Hidden Markov Models  [PDF]
Shaohua Li,Ryohei Fujimaki,Chunyan Miao
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: Factorial hidden Markov models (FHMMs) are powerful tools of modeling sequential data. Learning FHMMs yields a challenging simultaneous model selection issue, i.e., selecting the number of multiple Markov chains and the dimensionality of each chain. Our main contribution is to address this model selection issue by extending Factorized Asymptotic Bayesian (FAB) inference to FHMMs. First, we offer a better approximation of marginal log-likelihood than the previous FAB inference. Our key idea is to integrate out transition probabilities, yet still apply the Laplace approximation to emission probabilities. Second, we prove that if there are two very similar hidden states in an FHMM, i.e. one is redundant, then FAB will almost surely shrink and eliminate one of them, making the model parsimonious. Experimental results show that FAB for FHMMs significantly outperforms state-of-the-art nonparametric Bayesian iFHMM and Variational FHMM in model selection accuracy, with competitive held-out perplexity.
The Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden Semi-Markov Model  [PDF]
Matthew J. Johnson,Alan Willsky
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: There is much interest in the Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden Markov Model (HDP-HMM) as a natural Bayesian nonparametric extension of the traditional HMM. However, in many settings the HDP-HMM's strict Markovian constraints are undesirable, particularly if we wish to learn or encode non-geometric state durations. We can extend the HDP-HMM to capture such structure by drawing upon explicit-duration semi-Markovianity, which has been developed in the parametric setting to allow construction of highly interpretable models that admit natural prior information on state durations. In this paper we introduce the explicitduration HDP-HSMM and develop posterior sampling algorithms for efficient inference in both the direct-assignment and weak-limit approximation settings. We demonstrate the utility of the model and our inference methods on synthetic data as well as experiments on a speaker diarization problem and an example of learning the patterns in Morse code.
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