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Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and risk factor prevalence in San Francisco Bay area and California women: 1988 to 2004
Theresa HM Keegan, Ellen T Chang, Esther M John, Pamela L Horn-Ross, Margaret R Wrensch, Sally L Glaser, Christina A Clarke
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1768
Abstract: Annual age-adjusted breast cancer incidence and mortality rates (1988 to 2004) were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and analyzed using Joinpoint regression. Population-based risk factor prevalences were calculated using two data sources: control subjects from four case-control studies (1989 to 1999) and the 2001 and 2003 California Health Interview Surveys.In the SFBA, incidence rates of invasive breast cancer increased 1.3% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7% to 2.0%) in 1988–1999 and decreased 3.6% per year (95% CI, 1.6% to 5.6%) in 1999–2004. In other regions of California, incidence rates of invasive breast cancer increased 0.8% per year (95% CI, 0.4% to 1.1%) in 1988–2001 and decreased 4.4% per year (95% CI, 1.4% to 7.3%) in 2001–2004. In both regions, recent (2000–2001 to 2003–2004) decreases in invasive breast cancer occurred only in women 40 years old or older and in women with all histologic subtypes and tumor sizes, hormone receptor-defined types, and all stages except distant disease. Mortality rates declined 2.2% per year (95% CI, 1.8% to 2.6%) from 1988 to 2004 in the SFBA and the rest of California. Use of estrogen-progestin hormone therapy decreased significantly from 2001 to 2003 in both regions. In 2003–2004, invasive breast cancer incidence remained higher (4.2%) in the SFBA than in the rest of California, consistent with the higher distributions of many established risk factors, including advanced education, nulliparity, late age at first birth, and alcohol consumption.Ongoing surveillance of breast cancer occurrence patterns in this high-risk population informs breast cancer etiology through comparison of trends with lower-risk populations and by highlighting the importance of examining how broad migration patterns influence the geographic distribution of risk factors.A striking feature of breast cancer epidemiology is its geographic variation in occurrence, with differences in invasive breast cancer incidence as high as 10-
Incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Americas
Barceló,Alberto; Rajpathak,Swapnil;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892001001100002
Abstract: objective. to present the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the americas as found through a thorough review of published information on the subject. methods. data were obtained through a comprehensive review using the medline and bireme bibliographical databases. in addition, government publications, conference reports, and meeting documents were identified by contacting government and nongovernmental organizations and other institutions. incidence and prevalence rates were adjusted by age and sex, when possible, by the direct method using the world segi population as the standard. the 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the poisson distribution or the normal distribution. results. diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem in the americas, and there is evidence that its prevalence is increasing in some countries. conclusions. given that most latin american and caribbean nations are experiencing a demographic transition, it is expected that the prevalence of diabetes will continue to increase rapidly in the near future. despite the economic constraints faced by the countries of the americas, there is a clear need for more efforts in the area of diabetes prevention and control.
Incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Americas  [cached]
Barceló Alberto,Rajpathak Swapnil
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: Objective. To present the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Americas as found through a thorough review of published information on the subject. Methods. Data were obtained through a comprehensive review using the MEDLINE and BIREME bibliographical databases. In addition, government publications, conference reports, and meeting documents were identified by contacting government and nongovernmental organizations and other institutions. Incidence and prevalence rates were adjusted by age and sex, when possible, by the direct method using the world Segi population as the standard. The 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Poisson distribution or the normal distribution. Results. Diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem in the Americas, and there is evidence that its prevalence is increasing in some countries. Conclusions. Given that most Latin American and Caribbean nations are experiencing a demographic transition, it is expected that the prevalence of diabetes will continue to increase rapidly in the near future. Despite the economic constraints faced by the countries of the Americas, there is a clear need for more efforts in the area of diabetes prevention and control.
Incidence and prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: review of the literature  [cached]
Luba Nalysnyk,Javier Cid-Ruzafa,Philip Rotella,Dirk Esser
European Respiratory Review , 2012,
Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown aetiology. It is a rare disease, and its incidence and prevalence are not clear. Therefore, we sought to review the published evidence on the global epidemiology of IPF. A comprehensive review of English language literature was performed by searching Medline and EMBASE for studies on IPF epidemiology published between January 1990 and August 2011. Studies providing quantitative data on IPF incidence and/or prevalence were identified and key data collected. 15 studies reporting on the incidence and/or prevalence of IPF were identified and summarised. IPF prevalence estimates in the USA varied between 14 and 27.9 cases per 100,000 population using narrow case definitions, and 42.7 and 63 per 100,000 population using broad case definitions. In Europe, IPF prevalence ranged from 1.25 to 23.4 cases per 100,000 population. The annual incidence of IPF in the USA was estimated at 6.8–8.8 per 100,000 population using narrow case definitions and 16.3–17.4 per 100,000 population using broad case definitions. In Europe, the annual incidence ranged between 0.22 and 7.4 per 100,000 population. IPF prevalence and incidence increase with age, are higher among males and appear to be on the increase in recent years. IPF is an orphan disease that affects a potentially increasing number of people in Europe and the USA. The observed variability in IPF incidence and prevalence may be explained by the differences in diagnostic criteria used, case definition, study population and study design.
On the error of incidence estimation from prevalence data  [PDF]
Ralph Brinks
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: This paper describes types of errors arising in a recently proposed method of incidence estimation from prevalence data. The errors are illustrated by a simulation study about a hypothetical irreversible disease. In addition, a way of obtaining error bounds in practical applications of the method is proposed.
The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World
SORIN M. R?DULESCU
Revista Roman? de Sociologie , 2010,
Abstract: The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of child sexual abuse perpetrated by women against minors, mainly against teenagers.
THE PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE OF CRYTOSPORIDUM SPECIES IN NATURALLY INFECTED CALVES  [cached]
Rahmatullah Rind, Allan John Robert1 and Rehana Buriro
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2002,
Abstract: An investigation on the prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. In faecal samples of calves was carried out. Out of 178 faecal samples examined from younger calves (2-3 months of age). 119 were (66.85%) were found positive with Cryptosporidum spp. (Ziehl-Neelsen method) and 100 (56.18%) were found positive using the rapid staining technique. The study indicated that asymptomatic infection was more common in young calves above two months of age. The incidence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples of calves was also investigated during twelve months period. 100% (Ziehl-Neelsen method) samples were found positive in June while a gradual decline in incidence occurred such that bby May of the following year only 26.66% were positives. Faecal samples from calves were collected and analyzed on the basis of their consistence. Generally a greater number of soft faeces were found positive with oocysts compared to diarrhoic and diarrhoes faeces. However, a variation in morpholllogical characteristics of the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species was using the two techniques
Associations between HIV Antiretroviral Therapy and the Prevalence and Incidence of Pregnancy in Rakai, Uganda  [PDF]
Fredrick. E. Makumbi,Gertrude Nakigozi,Steven. J. Reynolds,Anthony Ndyanabo,Tom Lutalo,David Serwada,Fred Nalugoda,Maria Wawer,Ron Gray
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/519492
Abstract: Background. Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be associated with higher pregnancy rates. Methods. The prevalence and incidence of pregnancy was assessed in 712 HIV+ pre-ART women of reproductive age (WRA) (15–45) and 244 HIV+ WRA initiating ART. Prevalence rate ratios (PRR), incidence rate ratios (IRR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were assessed. Results. The incidence of pregnancy was 13.1/100 py among women in pre-ART care compared to 24.6/100 py among women on ART (IRR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.37, 0.81, ). The prevalence of pregnancy at ART initiation was 12.0% with CD4 counts 100–250 compared with 3.2% with CD4 <100 (PRR = 3.24, CI 1.51–6.93), and the incidence of pregnancy while on ART was highest in women with a good immunologic response. Desire for more children was a very important factor in fertility. Conclusion. ART was associated with increased pregnancy rates in HIV+ women, particularly those with higher CD4 counts and good immunologic response to therapy, suggesting a need to strengthen reproductive health services for both women and their partners that could address their fertility decisions/intentions particularly after ART initiation. 1. Introduction The HIV/AIDs epidemic remains a serious public health challenge, as well as a social dilemma especially among women of childbearing age [1] who were 46% of the HIV global burden [2]. HIV infected women face difficult decisions regarding childbearing. HIV-infection compromises their immunity which further aggravates their chances of conception as well as sustaining a pregnancy to term. Reduced fertility among HIV-positive women has been reported in sub-Saharan Africa [3–7]. Fertility is not impaired during early HIV infection [8, 9] but declines with disease progression, and the reduction is greatest with onset of AIDS [10]. The mechanisms through which fertility rates are reduced by HIV are not fully understood, but higher viral load and decreased CD4 counts with advanced HIV disease are likely to be implicated [11]. Also, progression to AIDS leads to decreased general health and well-being that may be associated with reduced sexual activity. However, the advent of ART has improved the general health and may increase sexual activity, and improved survival prospects may increase the desire for more children [12–15]. Desire for more children may also be due to improvements in pregnancy care that have reduced the risk of vertical transmission, especially if pregnant women receive timely ART or if they deliver by caesarean section and avoid breastfeeding when recommended. However, even in the
Projections of Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality from Melanoma in Spain
Milagros Bernal,Dyego L. B. Souza,German Gomez,Francisco J. Gomez
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.32a001
Abstract: Objective: The incidence and mortality rates for cutaneous melanoma (CM) have increased markedly in the last few years. As such, the aim of this study was to forecast their progression in Spain up until 2022. Design: A prospective epidemiological study using the Miamod technique. The primary data source was the mortality statistics released by the National Statistics Institute. Study selection: The MIAMOD method was used. Data extraction: Cases of death due to general and melanoma-related mortality in Spain between 1998 and 2007. Results: In men, the incidence is expected to increase from 11.85 (adjusted: 8.52) to 14.79 (adjusted: 9.43) per 100,000 inhabitants over the period 1998-2022. Similarly, the mortality is expected to increase slightly from 5.84 (adjusted: 4.12) to 7.19 (adjusted: 4.49) per 100,000 inhabitants, and the prevalence from 73.72 (adjusted: 52.31) to 95.46 (adjusted: 60.02) per 100,000 inhabitants over the same period. In women, the incidence is expected to increase from 3.79 (adjusted: 3.04) to 6.46 (adjusted: 4.21) per 100,000 inhabitants between 1998 and 2022, although this increase is not statistically significant. The mortality is expected to increase from 1.67 (adjusted: 1.24) to 2.98 (adjusted: 1.86) per 100,000 inhabitants, and the prevalence from 50.04 (adjusted: 44.54) to 84.81 per (adjusted: 56.18) 100,000 inhabitants over the same period. Conclusions: Primary and secondary prevention programs for this disease must be maintained.
Malaria incidence and prevalence on Pemba Island before the onset of the successful control intervention on the Zanzibar Archipelago
Thomas Jaenisch, David J Sullivan, Arup Dutta, Saikat Deb, Mahdi Ramsan, Mashavu K Othman, Roger Gaczkowski, James Tielsch, Sunil Sazawal
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-32
Abstract: In a rural clinic, two successive cohorts of 537 children total aged 2-23 months were followed for six months each with an intensive visitation schedule of bi-weekly follow-up. Robust estimates of incidence and prevalence according to four different malaria definitions were obtained.Malaria incidence and prevalence placed Pemba Island in a hyperendemic rather than holoendemic setting for the years 2003-2005. Overall parasite prevalence was estimated to be 39% - with monthly estimates varying between 30% and 50%. Incidence of malaria varied between 2.3 and 3.8 malaria episodes per year based on a diagnosis of fever and various microscopy-based parasite thresholds and between 4.8 and 5.7 based on a diagnosis of fever and 100 parasites/microliter analogous to detection by rapid diagnostic tests. Both parasite densities and malaria incidence increased with age and rainy season. Malaria incidence also varied substantially between the individual villages within the study area.Pemba Island was previously considered holo-endemic for Malaria. The data suggest that the transmission situation on Pemba Island was significantly lower in 2003-2005 suggesting a hyper-endemic or meso-endemic transmission environment. The figures were obtained just before the onset of the highly successful malaria control intervention by impregnated bed nets and IRS on the Zanzibar Archipelago and provide robust estimates of the malaria transmission situation prior to the control programme. Together with other published data, the results suggest that malaria transmission had started to decrease before the onset of the control programme. The local heterogeneity in malaria incidence highlights the importance of a micro-epidemiological approach in the context of malaria control and elimination.Malaria incidence has reportedly decreased substantially in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including the Zanzibar Archipelago in East Africa. A number of reasons have been proposed to explain this positive trend -
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