Abstract:
Betweenness centrality ranks the importance of nodes by their participation in all shortest paths of the network. Therefore computing exact betweenness values is impractical in large networks. For static networks, approximation based on randomly sampled paths has been shown to be significantly faster in practice. However, for dynamic networks, no approximation algorithm for betweenness centrality is known that improves on static recomputation. We address this deficit by proposing two incremental approximation algorithms (for weighted and unweighted connected graphs) which provide a provable guarantee on the absolute approximation error. Processing batches of edge insertions, our algorithms yield significant speedups up to a factor of $10^4$ compared to restarting the approximation. This is enabled by investing memory to store and efficiently update shortest paths. As a building block, we also propose an asymptotically faster algorithm for updating the SSSP problem in unweighted graphs. Our experimental study shows that our algorithms are the first to make in-memory computation of a betweenness ranking practical for million-edge semi-dynamic networks. Moreover, our results show that the accuracy is even better than the theoretical guarantees in terms of absolutes errors and the rank of nodes is well preserved, in particular for those with high betweenness.

Abstract:
A class of centrality measures called betweenness centralities reflects degree of participation of edges or nodes in communication between different parts of the network. The original shortest-path betweenness centrality is based on counting shortest paths which go through a node or an edge. One of shortcomings of the shortest-path betweenness centrality is that it ignores the paths that might be one or two steps longer than the shortest paths, while the edges on such paths can be important for communication processes in the network. To rectify this shortcoming a current flow betweenness centrality has been proposed. Similarly to the shortest path betwe has prohibitive complexity for large size networks. In the present work we propose two regularizations of the current flow betweenness centrality, \alpha-current flow betweenness and truncated \alpha-current flow betweenness, which can be computed fast and correlate well with the original current flow betweenness.

Abstract:
We consider the incremental computation of the betweenness centrality of all vertices in a large complex network modeled as a graph G = (V, E), directed or undirected, with positive real edge-weights. The current widely used algorithm to compute the betweenness centrality of all vertices in G is the Brandes algorithm that runs in O(mn + n^2 log n) time, where n = |V| and m = |E|. We present an incremental algorithm that updates the betweenness centrality score of all vertices in G when a new edge is added to G, or the weight of an existing edge is reduced. Our incremental algorithm runs in O(m' n + n^2) time, where m' is the size of a certain subset of E*, the set of edges in G that lie on a shortest path. We achieve the same bound for the more general incremental update of a vertex v, where the edge update can be performed on any subset of edges incident to v. Our incremental algorithm is the first algorithm that is asymptotically faster on sparse graphs than recomputing with the Brandes algorithm. Our algorithm is also likely to be much faster than the Brandes algorithm on dense graphs since m*, the size of E*, is often close to linear in n. Our incremental algorithm is very simple and the only data structures it uses are arrays, lists, and stack. We give an efficient cache-oblivious implementation that incurs O(scan(n^2) + n sort(m')) cache misses, where scan and sort are well-known measures for efficient caching. We also give a static algorithm for computing betweenness centrality of all vertices that runs in time O(m* n + n^2 log n), which is faster than the Brandes algorithm on any graph with n log n = o(m) and m* = o(m).

Abstract:
One of the most fundamental problems in large scale network analysis is to determine the importance of a particular node in a network. Betweenness centrality is the most widely used metric to measure the importance of a node in a network. In this paper, we present a randomized parallel algorithm and an algebraic method for computing betweenness centrality of all nodes in a network. We prove that any path-comparison based algorithm cannot compute betweenness in less than O(nm) time.

Abstract:
There are several centrality measures that have been introduced and studied for real world networks. They account for the different vertex characteristics that permit them to be ranked in order of importance in the network. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the influence of a vertex over the flow of information between every pair of vertices under the assumption that information primarily flows over the shortest path between them. In this paper we present betweenness centrality of some important classes of graphs.

Abstract:
In many applications we are required to increase the deployment of a distributed monitoring system on an evolving network. In this paper we present a new method for finding candidate locations for additional deployment in the network. This method is based on the Group Betweenness Centrality (GBC) measure that is used to estimate the influence of a group of nodes over the information flow in the network. The new method assists in finding the location of k additional monitors in the evolving network, such that the portion of additional traffic covered is at least (1-1/e) of the optimal.

Abstract:
Betweenness is a well-known centrality measure that ranks the nodes of a network according to their participation in shortest paths. Since an exact computation is prohibitive in large networks, several approximation algorithms have been proposed. Besides that, recent years have seen the publication of dynamic algorithms for efficient recomputation of betweenness in evolving networks. In previous work we proposed the first semi-dynamic algorithms that recompute an approximation of betweenness in connected graphs after batches of edge insertions. In this paper we propose the first fully-dynamic approximation algorithms (for weighted and unweighted undirected graphs that need not to be connected) with a provable guarantee on the maximum approximation error. The transfer to fully-dynamic and disconnected graphs implies additional algorithmic problems that could be of independent interest. In particular, we propose a new upper bound on the vertex diameter for weighted undirected graphs. For both weighted and unweighted graphs, we also propose the first fully-dynamic algorithms that keep track of such upper bound. In addition, we extend our former algorithm for semi-dynamic BFS to batches of both edge insertions and deletions. Using approximation, our algorithms are the first to make in-memory computation of betweenness in fully-dynamic networks with millions of edges feasible. Our experiments show that they can achieve substantial speedups compared to recomputation, up to several orders of magnitude.

Abstract:
This paper presents a centrality measurement and analysis of the social networks for tracking online community. The tracking of single community in social networks is commonly done using some of the centrality measures employed in social network community tracking. The ability that centrality measures have to determine the relative position of a node within a network has been used in previous research work to track communities in social networks using betweenness, closeness and degree centrality measures. It introduces a new metric K-path centrality, and a randomized algorithm for estimating it, and shows empirically that nodes with high K-path centrality have high node betweenness centrality.

Abstract:
We analyze the betweenness centrality (BC) of nodes in large complex networks. In general, the BC is increasing with connectivity as a power law with an exponent $\eta$. We find that for trees or networks with a small loop density $\eta=2$ while a larger density of loops leads to $\eta<2$. For scale-free networks characterized by an exponent $\gamma$ which describes the connectivity distribution decay, the BC is also distributed according to a power law with a non universal exponent $\delta$. We show that this exponent $\delta$ must satisfy the exact bound $\delta\geq (\gamma+1)/2$. If the scale free network is a tree, then we have the equality $\delta=(\gamma+1)/2$.

Abstract:
Scale-free (SF) networks exhibiting a power-law degree distribution can be grouped into the assortative, dissortative and neutral networks according to the behavior of the degree-degree correlation coefficient. Here we investigate the betweenness centrality (BC) correlation for each type of SF networks. While the BC-BC correlation coefficients behave similarly to the degree-degree correlation coefficients for the dissortative and neutral networks, the BC correlation is nontrivial for the assortative ones found mainly in social networks. The mean BC of neighbors of a vertex with BC $g_i$ is almost independent of $g_i$, implying that each person is surrounded by almost the same influential environments of people no matter how influential the person is.