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A Case of Ectopic Pregnancy—An Unusual Diagnostic Challenge and Lesson Learnt  [PDF]
Awatuf Elshirif, Seema Sadiq
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.54027

Ectopic pregnancy has been increasing in frequency over the past 2 decades. The sudden rupture of ectopic pregnancy can lead to haemorrhagic shock and death if not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. The first step in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is demonstration of pregnancy by means of a rapidly performed and sensitive qualitative urine test for the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG). This case report demonstrates the importance of further consideration of the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy in the setting of an unusual presentation like per rectal bleed and amenorrhea for three years in the presence of Mirena.

Inhomogeneous Systems with Unusual Critical Behaviour  [PDF]
F. Iglói,I. Peschel,L. Turban
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1080/00018739300101544
Abstract: The phase transitions and critical properties of two types of inhomogeneous systems are reviewed. In one case, the local critical behaviour results from the particular shape of the system. Here scale-invariant forms like wedges or cones are considered as well as general parabolic shapes. In the other case the system contains defects, either narrow ones in the form of lines or stars, or extended ones where the couplings deviate from their bulk values according to power laws. In each case the perturbation may be irrelevant, marginal or relevant. In the marginal case one finds local exponents which depend on a parameter. In the relevant case unusual stretched exponential behaviour and/or local first order transitions appear. The discussion combines mean field theory, scaling considerations, conformal transformations and perturbation theory. A number of examples are Ising models for which exact results can be obtained. Some walks and polymer problems are considered, too.
Unusual Behaviour of Dislocation Velocity Exponent in Dislocation Multiplication Model
Xaowei WANG,

材料科学技术学报 , 1998,
Abstract: The chaotic behavior of dislocation multiplication process is investigated. The change of Lya-punov exponent which is used to determine the stability of quasi-periodic and chaotic behavior as well as that of equilibrium points and periodic solution is reported using an iteration model of dislocation multiplication. An unusual behavior of Lyapunov exponent and Feigenbaum ex-ponent which respond to the geometric convergence of orbit from bifurcation to chaos is shown by dislocation velocity exponent m and there is a distinction on the tendency of convergence for the dislocation multipIication model when it is compared with togistic map. lt is reasonable for the difference to be analyzed from the materials viewpoint.
Unusual behaviour of an immature loggerhead turtle released in the Alboran Sea  [PDF]
J. J. Bellido,J. C. Báez,J. J. Castillo,J. J. Martín
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2010,
Abstract: A juvenile loggerhead turtle with buoyancy problems was captured in the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean Sea, south of Spain) and released 14 months later after healing. Six days after the release, the turtle was seen swimming 42 km from the point of release, displaying unusual behaviour. We re–captured and released it again, 95 nautical miles offshore, near the Alboran Island. Ten days later the turtle arrived at the beach close to where it had been maintained in captivity. We discuss these findings in the context of behavioural alteration and habituation in released sea turtles. Capture–mark–recapture studies of sea turtles should be approached with caution as manipulated animals may modify their usual behaviour.
Contextually proximate approach to develop smart user interface  [PDF]
Pushkar Joshi
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Researchers and experts are taking efforts in delivering an optimal user experience from a long time. Computer interfaces are being developed to keep user 'in the flow' as well as for making users more connected to the real world wile using virtual environment. Developing ubiquitous user interfaces for novices and experts at the same time is crucial work for interaction designers. This paper molds the designing approach of user interfaces in bit different parameters by reviewing the existing literature and proposing a different way to develop a smart user interface to make user more familiar with the design and to keep user 'in the flow'. Contextually proximate approach (CPA) will help users to minimize their feeling of insecurity as designing process includes local resources of users to develop the user interfaces. These various resources and parameters are explained further in the paper by giving different examples.
Contextually Supervised Source Separation with Application to Energy Disaggregation  [PDF]
Matt Wytock,J. Zico Kolter
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We propose a new framework for single-channel source separation that lies between the fully supervised and unsupervised setting. Instead of supervision, we provide input features for each source signal and use convex methods to estimate the correlations between these features and the unobserved signal decomposition. We analyze the case of $\ell_2$ loss theoretically and show that recovery of the signal components depends only on cross-correlation between features for different signals, not on correlations between features for the same signal. Contextually supervised source separation is a natural fit for domains with large amounts of data but no explicit supervision; our motivating application is energy disaggregation of hourly smart meter data (the separation of whole-home power signals into different energy uses). Here we apply contextual supervision to disaggregate the energy usage of thousands homes over four years, a significantly larger scale than previously published efforts, and demonstrate on synthetic data that our method outperforms the unsupervised approach.
Polymer Translocation in Crowded Environments  [PDF]
Ajay Gopinathan,Yong Woon Kim
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.228106
Abstract: We study the effect of the crowded nature of the cellular cytoplasm on the translocation of a polymer through a pore in a membrane. By systematically treating the entropic penalty due to crowding, we show that the translocation dynamics are significantly altered, leading to novel scaling behaviors of the translocation time in terms of chain length. We also observe new and qualitatively different translocation regimes depending upon the extent of crowding, transmembrane chemical potential asymmetry, and polymer length.
Helical Tubes in Crowded Environments  [PDF]
Yehuda Snir,Randall D. Kamien
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.75.051114
Abstract: When placed in a crowded environment, a semi-flexible tube is forced to fold so as to make a more compact shape. One compact shape that often arises in nature is the tight helix, especially when the tube thickness is of comparable size to the tube length. In this paper we use an excluded volume effect to model the effects of crowding. This gives us a measure of compactness for configurations of the tube, which we use to look at structures of the semi-flexible tube that minimize the excluded volume. We focus most of our attention on the helix and which helical geometries are most compact. We found that helices of specific pitch to radius ratio 2.512 to be optimally compact. This is the same geometry that minimizes the global curvature of the curve defining the tube. We further investigate the effects of adding a bending energy or multiple tubes to begin to explore the more complete space of possible geometries a tube could form.
Crowded Scene Analysis: A Survey  [PDF]
Teng Li,Huan Chang,Meng Wang,Bingbing Ni,Richang Hong,Shuicheng Yan
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1109/TCSVT.2014.2358029
Abstract: Automated scene analysis has been a topic of great interest in computer vision and cognitive science. Recently, with the growth of crowd phenomena in the real world, crowded scene analysis has attracted much attention. However, the visual occlusions and ambiguities in crowded scenes, as well as the complex behaviors and scene semantics, make the analysis a challenging task. In the past few years, an increasing number of works on crowded scene analysis have been reported, covering different aspects including crowd motion pattern learning, crowd behavior and activity analysis, and anomaly detection in crowds. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art techniques on this topic. We first provide the background knowledge and the available features related to crowded scenes. Then, existing models, popular algorithms, evaluation protocols, as well as system performance are provided corresponding to different aspects of crowded scene analysis. We also outline the available datasets for performance evaluation. Finally, some research problems and promising future directions are presented with discussions.
Using Stochastic modelling to identify unusual continuous glucose monitor measurements and behaviour, in newborn infants  [cached]
Signal Matthew,Le Compte Aaron,Harris Deborah L,Weston Phil J
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-11-45
Abstract: Background Abnormal blood glucose (BG) concentrations have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both critically ill adults and infants. Furthermore, hypoglycaemia and glycaemic variability have both been independently linked to mortality in these patients. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) devices have the potential to improve detection and diagnosis of these glycaemic abnormalities. However, sensor noise is a trade-off of the high measurement rate and must be managed effectively if CGMs are going to be used to monitor, diagnose and potentially help treat glycaemic abnormalities. Aim To develop a tool that will aid clinicians in identifying unusual CGM behaviour and highlight CGM data that potentially need to be interpreted with care. Methods CGM data and BG measurements from 50 infants at risk of hypoglycaemia were used. Unusual CGM measurements were classified using a stochastic model based on the kernel density method and historical CGM measurements from the cohort. CGM traces were colour coded with very unusual measurements coloured red, highlighting areas to be interpreted with care. A 5-fold validation of the model was Monte Carlo simulated 25 times to ensure an adequate model fit. Results The stochastic model was generated using ~67,000 CGM measurements, spread across the glycaemic range ~2-10 mmol/L. A 5-fold validation showed a good model fit: the model 80% confidence interval (CI) captured 83% of clinical CGM data, the model 90% CI captured 91% of clinical CGM data, and the model 99% CI captured 99% of clinical CGM data. Three patient examples show the stochastic classification method in use with 1) A stable, low variability patient which shows no unusual CGM measurements, 2) A patient with a very sudden, short hypoglycaemic event (classified as unusual), and, 3) A patient with very high, potentially un-physiological, glycaemic variability after day 3 of monitoring (classified as very unusual). Conclusions This study has produced a stochastic model and classification method capable of highlighting unusual CGM behaviour. This method has the potential to classify important glycaemic events (e.g. hypoglycaemia) as true clinical events or sensor noise, and to help identify possible sensor degradation. Colour coded CGM traces convey the information quickly and efficiently, while remaining computationally light enough to be used retrospectively or in real-time.
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