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Research Status and Development Direction of Piezoelectric Wind Energy Harvesting Technology  [PDF]
Hongbing Wang, Chunhua Sun
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.73001
Abstract: In recent years, with the rapid development of large-scale distributed wireless sensor systems and micro-power devices, the disadvantages of traditional chemical battery power supply mode are becoming more and more obvious. Piezoelectric energy collector has attracted wide attention because of its simple structure, no heating, no electromagnetic interference, environmental protection and easy miniaturization. Wind energy is a reproducible resource. Wind energy harvester based on piezoelectric intelligent material can be named piezoelectric wind energy harvesting which converts wind energy into electric power and will have great application prospect. To promote the development of piezoelectric wind energy harvesting technology, research statuses on piezoelectric wind energy harvesting technology are reviewed. The existing problem and development direction about piezoelectric wind energy harvester in the future are discussed. The study will be helpful for researchers engaged in piezoelectric wind energy harvesting.
Piezoelectric Vibration Harvesters Based on Vibrations of Cantilevered Bimorphs: A Review  [PDF]
Anam Khalid, Amit Kumar Redhewal, Manoj Kumar, Anupam Srivastav
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.69084
Abstract: With the advancement in the technologies around the world over the past few years, the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have gained much attention in harvesting the energy for wireless, self-powered and MEMS devices. In the present era, many devices are available for energy harnessing such as electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generator and these devices are designed based on its ability to capture the different form of environment energy such as solar energy, wind energy, thermal energy and convert it into the useful energy form. Out of these devices, the use of a piezoelectric generator for energy harvesting is very attractive for MEMS applications. There are various sources of harvestable energy including waste heat, solar energy, wind energy, energy in floating water and mechanical vibrations which are used by the researchers for energy harvesting purposes. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in harvesting mechanical vibrations as an energy source by various generators (such as electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generators). Also, the design and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, using vibrations of cantilevered bimorphs, for MEMS have also been reviewed here. Electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generators presented in the literature are reviewed by taking into an account the power output, frequency, acceleration, dimension and application of each generator and the coupling factor of each transduction mechanism has also been discussed for all the devices.
Macro and Micro Scale Electromagnetic Kinetic Energy Harvesting Generators  [PDF]
S. -P. Beeby,M. -J. Tudor,R. -N. Torah,E. Koukharenko,S. Roberts,T. O'Donnell,S. Roy
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: This paper is concerned with generators that harvest electrical energy from the kinetic energy present in the sensor nodes environment. These generators have the potential to replace or augment battery power which has a limited lifetime and requires periodic replacement which limits the placement and application of the sensor node.
Multi-Direction Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Techniques  [PDF]
Chunhua Sun, Guangqing Shang
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.79003
Abstract: With the development of portable and self-powering electronic devices, micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) and wireless sensor networks, research on piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques has been paid more and more attention. To enhance the ambient adaptability and improve the generating efficiency, the multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques turns to be a research hotspot. The current status of the multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvesting techniques was firstly reviewed. The characteristics of existed multi-directional piezoelectric harvester were then analyzed. An improved structure of multi-directional piezoelectric harvester was finally proposed. The multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvester has a good prospect in miniaturization, more sensitive to vibration directions and better energy efficiency.
Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration  [PDF]
Jackson W. Cryns,Brian K. Hatchell,Emiliano Santiago-Rojas,Kurt L. Silvers
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/241025
Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random, and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios; the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made compact, energy dense piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. Variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions in the previous literature for optimal power harvesting in sinusoidal and flat broadband vibration scenarios. Going beyond idealized steady-state sinusoidal and flat random vibration input, experimental SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibration sources significantly alter power generation and processing requirements by varying harvested power, shifting optimal conditioning impedance, inducing voltage fluctuations, and ultimately rendering idealized sinusoidal and random analyses incorrect. 1. Introduction Modular devices requiring no external power supply have become commonplace in many industries. Every day, wireless monitors gather information on hazardous processes and remote equipment, and consumer electronics take advantage of self-contained designs. These devices are often limited in their capabilities, size, and weight by the power supply, typically electrochemical batteries. Batteries are heavy, environmentally hazardous and require regular charging or replacement. To alleviate the constraints of batteries, the power demand of the device must be reduced or external energy sources need to be implemented. Modern radio frequency sensor nodes and wireless monitors only require milliwatts (mW) of power; many drop into microwatts (μW). A growing alternative to batteries is to harness energy from the surrounding environment, a concept known as energy harvesting. Ambient energy exists in many forms including thermal energy, kinetic energy, electromagnetic radiation, and vibration. Transducers convert this
Nonlinear energy harvesting  [PDF]
F. Cottone,L. Gammaitoni,H. Vocca
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.080601
Abstract: Ambient energy harvesting has been in recent years the recurring object of a number of research efforts aimed at providing an autonomous solution to the powering of small-scale electronic mobile devices. Among the different solutions, vibration energy harvesting has played a major role due to the almost universal presence of mechanical vibrations: from ground shaking to human movements, from ambient sound to thermal noise. Standard approaches are mainly based on resonant linear oscillators that are acted on by ambient vibrations. Here we propose a new method based on the exploitation of the dynamical features of stochastic nonlinear oscillators. Such a method is shown to outperform standard linear oscillators and to overcome some of the most severe limitations of present approaches, like narrow bandwidth, need for continuous frequency tuning and low efficiency. We demonstrate the superior performances of this method by applying it to piezoelectric energy harvesting from ambient vibration. Experimental results from a toy-model oscillator are described in terms of nonlinear stochastic dynamics. We prove that the method proposed here is quite general in principle and could be applied to a wide class of nonlinear oscillators and different energy conversion principles. There are also potentials for realizing micro/nano-scale power generators.
Research Status of Wind Energy Piezoelectric Generator  [PDF]
Chunhua Sun, Guangqing Shang
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2018.1012031
Abstract: It is of great significance for developing self-powered micro-devices to explore the research of piezoelectric effect in conversion of wind energy into electricity. Based on the different excitation modes, the existing wind energy piezoelectric generators are firstly classified. The research status of wind piezoelectric generators is further analyzed, and characteristics of various types of wind energy piezoelectric generators are summarized. Finally, the future research direction and emphasis of wind energy piezoelectric generators is proposed to carry out its miniaturization, lightweight and integration.
Preliminary Study of Optimum Piezoelectric Cross-Ply Composites for Energy Harvesting  [PDF]
David N. Betts,H. Alicia Kim,Christopher R. Bowen
Smart Materials Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/621364
Abstract: Energy harvesting devices based on a piezoelectric material attached to asymmetric bistable laminate plates have been shown to exhibit high levels of power extraction over a wide range of frequencies. This paper optimizes for the design of bistable composites combined with piezoelectrics for energy harvesting applications. The electrical energy generated during state-change, or “snap-through,” is maximized through variation in ply thicknesses and rectangular laminate edge lengths. The design is constrained by a bistability constraint and limits on both the magnitude of deflection and the force required for the reversible actuation. Optimum solutions are obtained for differing numbers of plies and the numerical investigation results are discussed. 1. Introduction Energy harvesting which converts ambient mechanical vibrations into electrical energy is an area of considerable research interest and has received extensive attention in the past decade. A variety of methods have been considered including inductive, capacitive, and piezoelectric materials [1–3]. In many cases harvesting devices have been designed to operate at resonance to optimize the power generation, for example, simple linear cantilever beam configurations. However, ambient vibrations generally exhibit multiple time-dependent frequencies which can include components at relatively low frequencies. This can make typical linear systems inefficient or unsuitable; particularly if the resonant frequency of the device is higher than the frequency range of the vibrations it is attempting to harvest. In order to improve the efficiency of vibrational energy harvesters, recent work has focused on exploiting nonlinearity for broadband energy harvesting. Encouraging results [2] have been obtained using nonlinear or bistable cantilevered beams. Stanton et al. [2] modeled and experimentally validated a non-linear energy harvester using a piezoelectric cantilever. An end magnet on the oscillating cantilever interacts with oppositely poled stationary magnets, which induces softening or hardening into the system and allows the resonance frequency to be tuned. This technique was shown to outperform linear systems when excited by varying frequencies. However, such a system would require an obtrusive arrangement of external magnets and could generate unwanted electromagnetic fields. An alternative method has been recently found where a piezoelectric element is attached to bistable laminate plates with 2 plies and a total ( ) layup of to induce large amplitude oscillations [3]. Such harvesting structures have
Optimization of Piezoelectric Electrical Generators Powered by Random Vibrations  [PDF]
E. Lefeuvre,A. Badel,C. Richard,L. Petit,D. Guyomar
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: This paper compares the performances of a vibrationpowered electrical generators using PZT piezoelectric ceramic associated to two different power conditioning circuits. A new approach of the piezoelectric power conversion based on a nonlinear voltage processing is presented and implemented with a particular power conditioning circuit topology. Theoretical predictions and experimental results show that the nonlinear processing technique may increase the power harvested by a factor up to 4 compared to the Standard optimization technique. Properties of this new technique are analyzed in particular in the case of broadband, random vibrations, and compared to those of the Standard interface.
Energy Harvesting Thermoelectric Generators Manufactured Using the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Process  [PDF]
Ming-Zhi Yang,Chyan-Chyi Wu,Ching-Liang Dai,Wen-Jung Tsai
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130202359
Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of energy harvesting thermoelectric micro generators using the commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The micro generator consists of 33 thermocouples in series. Thermocouple materials are p-type and n-type polysilicon since they have a large Seebeck coefficient difference. The output power of the micro generator depends on the temperature difference in the hot and cold parts of the thermocouples. In order to increase this temperature difference, the hot part of the thermocouples is suspended to reduce heat-sinking. The micro generator needs a post-CMOS process to release the suspended structures of hot part, which the post-process includes an anisotropic dry etching to etch the sacrificial oxide layer and an isotropic dry etching to remove the silicon substrate. Experiments show that the output power of the micro generator is 9.4 mW at a temperature difference of 15 K.
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