Abstract:
A roadmap for a semi-algebraic set $S$ is a curve which has a non-empty and connected intersection with all connected components of $S$. Hence, this kind of object, introduced by Canny, can be used to answer connectivity queries (with applications, for instance, to motion planning) but has also become of central importance in effective real algebraic geometry, since it is used in many higher-level algorithms. For a long time, the best known complexity result for computing roadmaps, due to Basu, Pollack and Roy, was $s^{d+1} D^{O(n^2)}$, where the input is given by $s$ polynomials of degree $D$ in $n$ variables, with $d \le n$ the dimension of an associated geometric object. In 2011, we introduced new proof techniques for establishing connectivity results in real algebraic sets. This gave us more freedom for the design of algorithms computing roadmaps and led us to a first probabilistic roadmap algorithm for smooth and bounded real hypersurfaces running in time $(nD)^{O(n^{1.5})}$. With Basu and Roy, we then obtained a deterministic algorithm for general real algebraic sets running in time $D^{O(n^{1.5})}$. Recently, Basu and Roy improved this result to obtain an algorithm computing a roadmap of degree polynomial in $n^{n\log^2(n)} D^{n\log(n)}$, in time polynomial in $n^{n\log^3(n)} D^{n\log^2(n)}$; this is close to the expected optimal $D^n$. In this paper, we provide a probabilistic algorithm which computes roadmaps for smooth and bounded real algebraic sets such that the output size and the running time are polynomial in $(nD)^{n\log(n)}$. More precisely, the running time of the algorithm is essentially subquadratic in the output size. Even under these extra assumptions, it is the first roadmap algorithm with output size and running time polynomial in $(nD)^{n\log(n)}$.

Abstract:
We study the algebraic boundary of a convex semi-algebraic set via duality in convex and algebraic geometry. We generalize the correspondence of facets of a polytope to the vertices of the dual polytope to general semi-algebraic convex bodies. In the general setup, exceptional families of extreme points might exist and we characterize them semi-algebraically. We also give an algorithm to compute a complete list of exceptional families, given the algebraic boundary of the dual convex set.

Abstract:
We consider a semi-algebraic function defined on a closed semi-algebraic set X. We give formulas relating the topology of X to the indices of the critical points of the function and to the topological behavior of the function at infinity. We give applications when X is R^n and when the function is linear.

Abstract:
We complete the details of a theory outlined by Kontsevich and Soibelman that associates to a semi-algebraic set a certain graded commutative differential algebra of "semi-algebraic differential forms" in a functorial way. This algebra encodes the real homotopy type of the semi-algebraic set in the spirit of the DeRham algebra of differential forms on a smooth manifold. Its development is needed for Kontsevich's proof of the formality of the little cubes operad.

Abstract:
Let $K_f$ be a closed semi-algebraic set in $\dR^d$ such that there exist bounded real polynomials $h_1,{...},h_n$ on $K_f$. It is proved that the moment problem for $K_f$ is solvable provided it is for all sets $K_f\cap C_\lambda$, where $C_\lambda=\{x:h_1(x)=\lambda_1,{...},h_n(x)=\lambda_n\}$ and $\inf\{h_j(x); x\in K_f\}\le\lambda_j\le\sup\{h_j(x);x\in K_f\}$. New classes of non-compact closed semi-algebraic sets $K_f$ are found for which the moment problem is solvable. To appear in Journal fuer die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik

Abstract:
We provide two certificates of convexity for arbitrary basic semi-algebraic sets of $\R^n$. The first one is based on a necessary and sufficient condition whereas the second one is based on a sufficient (but simpler) condition only. Both certificates are obtained from any feasible solution of a related semidefinite program and so can be obtained numerically (however, up to machine precision).

Abstract:
This paper is about the logarithmic limit sets of real semi-algebraic sets, and, more generally, about the logarithmic limit sets of sets definable in an o-minimal, polynomially bounded structure. We prove that most of the properties of the logarithmic limit sets of complex algebraic sets hold in the real case. This include the polyhedral structure and the relation with the theory of non-archimedean fields, tropical geometry and Maslov dequantization.

Abstract:
We prove that two infinite p-adic semi-algebraic sets are isomorphic (i.e. there exists a semi-algebraic bijection between them) if and only if they have the same dimension.

Abstract:
In this thesis, we consider semi-algebraic sets over a real closed field $R$ defined by quadratic polynomials. Semi-algebraic sets of $R^k$ are defined as the smallest family of sets in $R^k$ that contains the algebraic sets as well as the sets defined by polynomial inequalities, and which is also closed under the boolean operations (complementation, finite unions and finite intersections). We prove new bounds on the Betti numbers as well as on the number of different stable homotopy types of certain fibers of semi-algebraic sets over a real closed field $R$ defined by quadratic polynomials, in terms of the parameters of the system of polynomials defining them, which improve the known results. We conclude the thesis with presenting two new algorithms along with their implementations. The first algorithm computes the number of connected components and the first Betti number of a semi-algebraic set defined by compact objects in $\mathbb{R}^k$ which are simply connected. This algorithm improves the well-know method using a triangulation of the semi-algebraic set. Moreover, the algorithm has been efficiently implemented which was not possible before. The second algorithm computes efficiently the real intersection of three quadratic surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^3$ using a semi-numerical approach.

Abstract:
Let $(K,\nu)$ be a real closed valued field, and let $S\subseteq K^n$ be a definable open semi-algebraic set. We find an algebraic characterization of rational functions which are OVF-integral on $S$. We apply the existing model theoretic framework for proving ganzstellens\"atze, and need to control semi-sections and their relations to orderings. (joint work with Noa Lavi)