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A Uniform Approach to Analogies, Synonyms, Antonyms, and Associations  [PDF]
Peter D. Turney
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Recognizing analogies, synonyms, antonyms, and associations appear to be four distinct tasks, requiring distinct NLP algorithms. In the past, the four tasks have been treated independently, using a wide variety of algorithms. These four semantic classes, however, are a tiny sample of the full range of semantic phenomena, and we cannot afford to create ad hoc algorithms for each semantic phenomenon; we need to seek a unified approach. We propose to subsume a broad range of phenomena under analogies. To limit the scope of this paper, we restrict our attention to the subsumption of synonyms, antonyms, and associations. We introduce a supervised corpus-based machine learning algorithm for classifying analogous word pairs, and we show that it can solve multiple-choice SAT analogy questions, TOEFL synonym questions, ESL synonym-antonym questions, and similar-associated-both questions from cognitive psychology.
A New Method of Hierarchical Text Clustering Based on Lsa-Hgsom  [cached]
Jianfeng Wang,Lina Ma,Xinye Li,Yangxiu Zhou
Modern Applied Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v3n9p72
Abstract: Text clustering has been recognized as an important component in data mining. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) based models have been found to have certain advantages for clustering sizeable text data. However, current existing approaches lack in providing an adaptive hierarchical structure within in a single model. This paper presents a new method of hierarchical text clustering based on combination of latent semantic analysis (LSA) and hierarchical GSOM, which is called LSA-HGSOM method. The text clustering result using traditional methods can not show hierarchical structure. However, the hierarchical structure is very important in text clustering. The LSA-HGSOM method can automatically achieve hierarchical text clustering, and establishes vector space model (VSM) of term weight by using the theory of LSA, then semantic relation is included in the vector space model. Both theory analysis and experimental results confirm that LSA-HGSOM method decreases the number of vector, and enhances the efficiency and precision of text clustering.
Grouping Synonyms by Definitions  [PDF]
Ingrid Falk,Claire Gardent,Evelyne Jacquey,Fabienne Venant
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: We present a method for grouping the synonyms of a lemma according to its dictionary senses. The senses are defined by a large machine readable dictionary for French, the TLFi (Tr\'esor de la langue fran\c{c}aise informatis\'e) and the synonyms are given by 5 synonym dictionaries (also for French). To evaluate the proposed method, we manually constructed a gold standard where for each (word, definition) pair and given the set of synonyms defined for that word by the 5 synonym dictionaries, 4 lexicographers specified the set of synonyms they judge adequate. While inter-annotator agreement ranges on that task from 67% to at best 88% depending on the annotator pair and on the synonym dictionary being considered, the automatic procedure we propose scores a precision of 67% and a recall of 71%. The proposed method is compared with related work namely, word sense disambiguation, synonym lexicon acquisition and WordNet construction.
科技导报 , 1985,
Abstract: TOEFL(常译为“托福考试”,全名TestingofEnglishAsAForeignLanguage)是美国考试中心ETS(EducationalTestingService)在全世界130多个国家和地区举办的英语水平考试,旨在为非英语国家学生去美国、加拿大的大学、学院学习提供统一的水准测验。美、加有2000余所大学、学院与ETS有联系,并各自定有TOEFL的成绩录取分数线。考生达到所报学校的分数线即可被录取(需GRE成绩者还要考GRE)。ETS不决定考生录取与否。
A Comparison of TOEFL iBT and IELTS Reading Tests  [PDF]
Ying Li
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.68023
Abstract: With the increasing popularity among test takers and mounting acceptance from academic institutions, TOEFL iBT and IELTS are regarded and treated as equals due to similar purposes and goals. In depth, they distinguish each other in various aspects. By integrating Bachman’s framework of test method facet and Alderson’s variables of reading nature, this article formulates a comparison framework in an attempt to compare the reading parts of these two tests. The results show they share more similarities in test rubrics and input format and slightly differ from each other in score method and specification of procedures and tasks. However, substantial differences are identified in such areas as the nature of language and characteristics of tasks, which has a significant impact on test takers’ performance because TOEFL iBT reading test is more difficult in terms of readability, text types, topical features and question types, while IELTS more complex in text length and grammatical intricacy.
Senescence: Concepts and Synonyms  [PDF]
Waseem Shahri
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The study reviews on the concept of senescence and some important synonymous terms of it. The term ‘Senescence’ has deeper roots than Programmed Cell Death (PCD)’. Senescence can be regarded to occur at microscopic as well as microscopic levels. At microscopic levels, the process is continuous and can be viewed as Programmed cell death’. Thus both PCD and senescence can be viewed as synonyms at cellular level. Senescence is characterized by a number of catabolic processes as protein degradation, nucleic acid and nuclear degradation, lipid peroxidation, disruption of cell membranes etc., but at the same time, it prepares the plant to start the next generation by remobilizing essential nutrients to developing organs which makes it important for the success of subsequent generations. Although true apoptosis has not been found to occur in plants, but some features of it have been implicated to occur in plants. Recent studies have also revealed the differential expression of some genes in plant systems that were earlier found to express during animal cell death. It is therefore to be decided whether the term apoptosis’ will be still restricted to animal systems only. Ageing refers to degenerative changes that occur in all organisms without any reference to death, while senescence refers to the developmental stage at which close to death’ symptoms becomes apparent.
Rebecca Clift
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2003, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.3.1.48631
Abstract: This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA) might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than what it means.
Primary description, new combinations and synonyms in the genus Laccaria  [cached]
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 1994,
Abstract: This paper is a comprehensive enumeration of the primary descriptions and new combinations of the species, varieties, forms and supraspecific taxons of the genus Laccaria and their synonyms, on the base of the published literature.
A Closer Look at Reading Strategy Use in Reading Section of TOEFL iBT
Sayyed Mohammad Alavi,Soodeh Bordbar
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.2.3.450-460
Abstract: This paper investigates any difference in employing Reading strategies, relates them to various item types of reading comprehension in TOEFL iBT (copyrighted by ETS, 2005). Sixty-six respondents (26 males and 40 females) participated in the present study. A list of reading strategies (adopted from Cohen & Upton, 2006), followed by a test of reading comprehension that took forty-five minutes to complete were used. Before the test begun, the participants were instructed how to specify the strategies that they employed during taking the test. To address the research question, the analyses of the results revealed that the difference is significant in the use of Reading strategies for various item types. On the basis of the findings language teachers are recommended to teach different Reading strategies in order to help TOEFL applicants to use them related to different item types more efficiently and effectively.
Face Recognition Based on Improved LSA Model

ZHAO Ming-hu,YOU Zhi-sheng,LV Xue-bin,YU Jing,MU Wan-jun,

计算机应用研究 , 2005,
Abstract: An improved LSA model is proposed, and it is applied to face recognition. Firstly, the model is established to represent the map between the pixels residing at images of various resolutions; after that, parameters of the model are obtained from original image and its wavelet decomposition results to decide the map; finally, the identified map is used to estimate images at finer resolution from coarser versions. Parameters of the model about testing image and about training images are compared to classify the testing image. Experimental results show that images estimated by presented model are more similar to target images than those estimated by LSA model. The face recognition system based on the presented model is robust to illumination.
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