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An Update Semantics for Defeasible Obligations  [PDF]
Leendert van der Torre,Yao-Hua Tan
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The deontic logic DUS is a Deontic Update Semantics for prescriptive obligations based on the update semantics of Veltman. In DUS the definition of logical validity of obligations is not based on static truth values but on dynamic action transitions. In this paper prescriptive defeasible obligations are formalized in update semantics and the diagnostic problem of defeasible deontic logic is discussed. Assume a defeasible obligation `normally A ought to be (done)' together withthe fact `A is not (done).' Is this an exception of the normality claim, or is it a violation of the obligation? In this paper we formalize the heuristic principle that it is a violation, unless there is a more specific overriding obligation. The underlying motivation from legal reasoning is that criminals should have as little opportunities as possible to excuse themselves by claiming that their behavior was exceptional rather than criminal.
A Model-Theoretic Semantics for Defeasible Logic  [PDF]
Michael J. Maher
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: Defeasible logic is an efficient logic for defeasible reasoning. It is defined through a proof theory and, until now, has had no model theory. In this paper a model-theoretic semantics is given for defeasible logic. The logic is sound and complete with respect to the semantics. We also briefly outline how this approach extends to a wide range of defeasible logics.
Interdefinability of defeasible logic and logic programming under the well-founded semantics  [PDF]
Frederick Maier
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: We provide a method of translating theories of Nute's defeasible logic into logic programs, and a corresponding translation in the opposite direction. Under certain natural restrictions, the conclusions of defeasible theories under the ambiguity propagating defeasible logic ADL correspond to those of the well-founded semantics for normal logic programs, and so it turns out that the two formalisms are closely related. Using the same translation of logic programs into defeasible theories, the semantics for the ambiguity blocking defeasible logic NDL can be seen as indirectly providing an ambiguity blocking semantics for logic programs. We also provide antimonotone operators for both ADL and NDL, each based on the Gelfond-Lifschitz (GL) operator for logic programs. For defeasible theories without defeaters or priorities on rules, the operator for ADL corresponds to the GL operator and so can be seen as partially capturing the consequences according to ADL. Similarly, the operator for NDL captures the consequences according to NDL, though in this case no restrictions on theories apply. Both operators can be used to define stable model semantics for defeasible theories.
The Dividing Line between Semantics and Pragmatics  [cached]
Shu-ying LIU
Canadian Social Science , 2009,
Abstract: Sense and reference are two very important terms in linguistics. However, adequate importance has not been attached to them. As a result, they are often approached separately or subordinately in the textbooks of linguistics. This essay will discuss the two terms more deeply as a whole and at the same time, reveal their importance, functions and nature. Key Words: sense, reference, semantics, pragmatics Résumé: Le sens et la référence sont deux termes très importants en linguistique . Or , l’importance adéquate n’est pas encore accordée . Par conséquent , ils sont souvent traits de fa on séparée ou subordonnée dans les méthodes de la linguistique . Cet essai , discutera les deux termes de fa on plus approfondie dans l’ensemble et à la fois révèle leur importance , fonction et nature . Mots –clés: sens, référence, sémantique, pragmatique
Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia
Salavera C,Puyuelo M,Antoñanzas JL,Teruel P
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013,
Abstract: Carlos Salavera, Miguel Puyuelo, José L Anto anzas, Pilar TeruelUniversidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainBackground: The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics.Results: The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills.Conclusion: The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject’s language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment.Keywords: schizophrenia, formal thought disorder, semantics, pragmatics
Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia
Salavera C, Puyuelo M, Anto anzas JL, Teruel P
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S38676
Abstract: ntics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia Original Research (753) Total Article Views Authors: Salavera C, Puyuelo M, Anto anzas JL, Teruel P Published Date February 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 177 - 183 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S38676 Received: 29 September 2012 Accepted: 05 December 2012 Published: 08 February 2013 Carlos Salavera, Miguel Puyuelo, José L Anto anzas, Pilar Teruel Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain Background: The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics. Results: The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills. Conclusion: The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject’s language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment.
Theoretical scarecrows on semantics versus pragmatics shocks
Marina Chiara Legroski
Via Litterae , 2010,
Abstract: This paper focus on a epistemologic discussion about semantics and pragmatics, through the presentation of the contest presented on two works: the 11th chapter of the Maria Victoria Scandell’s book Introducción a la pragmática,and the paper “A semantica,a pragmática e seus mistérios”, wrote by Renato Basso e Roberta Pires de Oliveira. On these papers, I intend to discuss the idea, also presented on the science’s philosophy – brought here by the Steven Pinker’s De que é feito o pensamento – whereby the epistemological discuss is made through the making of a theoretical “scarecrow”, i.e., an enemy easy to defeat. This analysis confronts two kinds of argumentation: on the one hand, the pragmaticist’s text, disqualifying semantics, and, by the other hand, the text of two semanticists, with one more weighted argumentation. By this, we can figure out that is possible to discuss with no need to build an enemy too easy to defeat and, mainly, there’s no needing to disqualify the opponent to justify a new theoretical approach.
The interaction of syntax, semantics & pragmatics in grammars: the development of analytic tools in modern linguistics  [cached]
Robert D. Van Valin Junior
Alfa : Revista de Linguística , 2001,
Abstract: One of the primary tasks facing a grammatical theory is to capture the interaction of syntax, semantics and pragmatics in linguistic systems. This is essential if linguistic theory is to explain the communicative functions of grammatical structures in particular languages and across languages. The questions which must be answered include: what is the appropriate universally valid representation for syntactic structure?, what would be an adequate representation of crucial aspects of the semantics of propositions?, how can discourse-pragmatic information be represented in a grammatically relevant way, and, most important, how do these different representations interact with each other? In this paper answers to these questions will be given in terms of Role and Reference Grammar (Van Valin, 1993; Van Valin & La Polla, 1997).
FORMAL SEMANTICS, SYNTAX, PRAGMATICS: AN ESSENCE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE DESIGN  [PDF]
Kebande Rigworo Victor,Karani Nyachiro Nelson
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: Programming language design constructs envisages all the essential attributes that contribute to better language, development methods and various ways through which the language design and extensions can be implemented. The syntax constitutes the form, the semantics constitutes the meaning those factors in static and dynamicanalysis of programs, and pragmatics shapes the language so that correctness of programs can be achieved. Developing a language with this constructs will aim at achieving systematic approaches and optimization of methodologies used, this will enhance domain specific languages. By use of syntax, semantic and pragmatics a correlation between, expressions, values, type systems will ignite compilers andvirtual machines to give a better understanding of the program and performing analysis and program synthesis, the action will help in improving and checking for correctness.
Semantics and pragmatics in actual software applications and in web search engines: exploring innovations  [PDF]
Fabrizio M. A. Lolli
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: While new ways to use the Semantic Web are developed every week, which allow the user to find information on web more accurately - for example in search engines - some sophisticated pragmatic tools are becoming more important - for example in web interfaces known as Social Intelligence, or in the most famous Siri by Apple. The work aims to analyze whether and where we can identify the boundary between semantics and pragmatics in the software used by analyzed systems. examining how the linguistic disciplines are fundamental in their progress. Is it possible to assume that the tools of social intelligence have a pragmatic approach to the questions of the user, or it is just a use of a very rich vocabulary, with the use of semantic tools?
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