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World’s First Class C Web Census: The First Step in a Complete Census of the Web  [cached]
Darcy Benoit,Devin Slauenwhite,Nick Schofield,André Trudel
Journal of Networks , 2007, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.2.2.45-56
Abstract: Our research goal is to measure the exact size of the World Wide Web (i.e., a census). The measure we are interested in is the number of publicly accessible web servers on port 80. We present the results from an initial survey of 3.5% of all addressable IP addresses. This is the largest survey of the Web performed to date. We then present results from the world’s first census of all Class C IP addresses. We also describe our approach for a full census of the Internet.
Overview of the World′s Exploitation, Consumption and Resources of Coal
Hredzák Slavomír,Lovás Michal,Jakabsky ?tefan
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 1998,
Abstract: The contribution gives attention to the general trends in the coal economy in the 90s. The most significant world′s coal producers are presented with regard to the total coal production as well as to the hard and brown coal production. The article also deals with the topical conditions in coal exploitation, consumption and resources in the world′s regions and countries. Some new trends in coal combustion and metallurgy are introduced.
Stagnation of the exploitation of Al ores and the depression of world prices of Al  [PDF]
Slavkovsky Jozef
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 1999,
Abstract: In the contribution, data on Al a metal of the 20th century are compiled together with the problems of genesis of the Al mineral raw ma-terials as well as types of bauxite and Al-laterite deposits. Furthermore, an overview of the world exploitation of bauxite during 1935-1980 is given along with the prognoses to 2000 and present situation (1992-1996). Overviews of the production of Al follows, providing its rela-tion to the bauxite exploitation. Contrary to the prognoses, a stabilization or stagnation has been observed in the exploitation of bauxite and production of Al during nineties, which a tendency is directly reflected in the world price of this commodity. When analyzing the Al prices for a longer period, some serious deviations can be noticed, that however presently represent a long-term minimum. We hope the stagnation of the production and the price decline are only temporary and new possibilities of the utilization of Al will be found soon.
Zipf's Law for All the Natural Cities around the World  [PDF]
Bin Jiang,Junjun Yin,Qingling Liu
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Two fundamental issues surrounding research on Zipf's law regarding city sizes are whether and why this law holds. This paper does not deal with the latter issue with respect to why, and instead investigates whether Zipf's law holds in a global setting, thus involving all cities around the world. Unlike previous studies, which have mainly relied on conventional census data such as populations, and census-bureau-imposed definitions of cities, we adopt naturally (in terms of data speaks for itself) delineated cities, or natural cities, to be more precise, in order to examine Zipf's law. We find that Zipf's law holds remarkably well for all natural cities at the global level, and remains almost valid at the continental level except for Africa at certain time instants. We further examine the law at the country level, and note that Zipf's law is violated from country to country or from time to time. This violation is mainly due to our limitations; we are limited to individual countries, or to a static view on city-size distributions. The central argument of this paper is that Zipf's law is universal, and we therefore must use the correct scope in order to observe it. We further find Zipf's law applied to city numbers; the number of cities in the first largest country is twice as many as that in the second largest country, three times as many as that in the third largest country, and so on. These findings have profound implications for big data and the science of cities. Keywords: Night-time imagery, city-size distributions, head/tail division rule, head/tail breaks, big data
Ordinal Notations in Caucal Hierarchy  [PDF]
Fedor Pakhomov
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Caucal hierarchy is a well-known class of graphs with decidable monadic theories. It were proved by L. Braud and A. Carayol that well-orderings in the hierarchy are the well-orderings with order types less than $\varepsilon_0$. Naturally, every well-ordering from the hierarchy could be considered as a constructive system of ordinal notations. In proof theory constructive systems of ordinal notations with fixed systems of cofinal sequences are used for the purposes of classification of provable recursive functions of theories. We show that any well-ordering from the hierarchy could be extended by a monadically definable system of cofinal sequences with Bachmann property. We show that the growth speed of functions from fast-growing hierarchy based on constructive ordinal notations from Caucal hierarchy may be only slightly influenced by the choice of monadically definable systems of cofinal sequences. We show that for ordinals less than $\omega^\omega$ a fast-growing hierarchy based on any system of ordinal notations from Caucal hierarchy coincides with L\"ob-Wainer hierarchy.
About Notations in Multiway Array Processing  [PDF]
Jeremy E. Cohen
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper gives an overview of notations used in multiway array processing. We redefine the vectorization and matricization operators to comply with some properties of the Kronecker product. The tensor product and Kronecker product are also represented with two different symbols, and it is shown how these notations lead to clearer expressions for multiway array operations. Finally, the paper recalls the useful yet widely unknown properties of the array normal law with suggested notations.
Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World  [PDF]
Stephanie N. Chilton,Jeremy P. Burton,Gregor Reid
Nutrients , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/nu7010390
Abstract: Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods.
Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world
Shaun D Pattinson, Timothy Caulfield
BMC Medical Ethics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-5-9
Abstract: Using the most reliable information available, we have performed a survey of the regulatory position of thirty countries around the world regarding the creation and use of cloned embryos (see Table 1). We have relied on original and translated legislation, as well as published sources and personal communications. We have examined the regulation of both reproductive cloning (RC) and non-reproductive cloning (NRC).While most of the countries studied have enacted national legislation, the absence of legislation in seven of these countries should not be equated with the absence of regulation. Senator Morin was not correct in stating that the majority of recent legislation bans both RC and NRC. Recent regulatory moves are united only with regard to the banning of RC. While NRC is not permitted in seventeen of the countries examined, it could be permitted in up to thirteen countries.There is little consensus on the various approaches to cloning laws and policies, and the regulatory position in many countries remains uncertain."The immense majority of countries who have passed legislation recently do ban both reproductive and therapeutic cloning" (Senator Morin, The Standing Senate Committee On Social Affairs, Science And Technology, Ottawa, Canada, Wednesday 18 February, 2004).In February 1997 an article was published in Nature announcing the birth of what was to become the most famous sheep in history [1]. That sheep, known as Dolly, was the product of asexual reproduction. As the world's media unhesitatingly announced, she was a clone. The prospect of a human clone led to immediate calls for regulatory controls on the technology. There were, however, divisions, particularly when it became apparent that the potential uses of the technique were not limited to reproduction. Other potential uses came one step closer when, in the following year, it was announced that embryonic stem cells had been successfully extracted from non-cloned human embryos [2]. Now, a year after the
Epidemiological profile of prostate cancer around the world
Hugo Gon?alo Guedes, Alexandre Barbosa Camara de Souza, Victor Carbone Bernardes de Oliveira, Fábio Aires de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes Araújo Júnior
Revista de Enfermagem UFPE On Line , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives: to realize a literature systematic review on the incidence of cancer in the world. Methods: It was conducted a search in the database of the PUBMED with the descriptors epidemiology, prostate, cancer. We selected articles published from 2002 to 2007. It was used as a criterion for exclusion searches that are not directly addressing the incidence of prostate cancer in the population. It were collected the following variables: author(s), year, purpose, methodology and conclusions. Results: 10 articles were reported. Conclusions: It was possible to verify that in the world, the distribution of prostate cancer varies with ethnicity, genetic susceptibility and environmental factors such as diet. With regard to ethnicity, black men have greater susceptibility to tumor that white men of similar age. In the case of genetic, changes in alleles of genes that control the metabolism of androgens influence the incidence of tumor. As for nutrition, research confirms the influence of foods such as meat, fats and oils, ice cream, margarine and vegetable fat.
Deposit Insurance around the World and the Turkey Experience  [PDF]
Fikret KARTAL
Eski?ehir Osmangazi üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: A deposit insurance scheme has the specific aims to protect small depositors and to contribute to the stability of financial system. The number of countries that have a deposit insurance scheme have increased rapidly since 1980. Turkey establishing explicit insurance scheme has experienced serious banking crises and the state had to go on domestic borrowing to pay this cost including deposit payments. The paper examines deposit insurance systems in theory and practice in the world; gives wide coverage to the Turkey’s model and make recommendations.
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