Abstract:
Entanglement is a complexity measure of directed graphs that origins in fixed point theory. This measure has shown its use in designing efficient algorithms to verify logical properties of transition systems. We are interested in the problem of deciding whether a graph has entanglement at most k. As this measure is defined by means of games, game theoretic ideas naturally lead to design polynomial algorithms that, for fixed k, decide the problem. Known characterizations of directed graphs of entanglement at most 1 lead, for k = 1, to design even faster algorithms. In this paper we present an explicit characterization of undirected graphs of entanglement at most 2. With such a characterization at hand, we devise a linear time algorithm to decide whether an undirected graph has this property.

Abstract:
Entanglement is a complexity measure of digraphs that origins in fixed-point logics. Its combinatorial purpose is to measure the nested depth of cycles in digraphs. We address the problem of characterizing the structure of graphs of entanglement at most $k$. Only partial results are known so far: digraphs for $k=1$, and undirected graphs for $k=2$. In this paper we investigate the structure of undirected graphs for $k=3$. Our main tool is the so-called \emph{Tutte's decomposition} of 2-connected graphs into cycles and 3-connected components into a tree-like fashion. We shall give necessary conditions on Tutte's tree to be a tree decomposition of a 2-connected graph of entanglement 3.

Abstract:
We consider the problem of providing nonparametric confidence guarantees for undirected graphs under weak assumptions. In particular, we do not assume sparsity, incoherence or Normality. We allow the dimension $D$ to increase with the sample size $n$. First, we prove lower bounds that show that if we want accurate inferences with low assumptions then there are limitations on the dimension as a function of sample size. When the dimension increases slowly with sample size, we show that methods based on Normal approximations and on the bootstrap lead to valid inferences and we provide Berry-Esseen bounds on the accuracy of the Normal approximation. When the dimension is large relative to sample size, accurate inferences for graphs under low assumptions are not possible. Instead we propose to estimate something less demanding than the entire partial correlation graph. In particular, we consider: cluster graphs, restricted partial correlation graphs and correlation graphs.

Abstract:
We show how to simplify the computation of the entanglement of formation and the relative entropy of entanglement for states, which are invariant under a group of local symmetries. For several examples of groups we characterize the state spaces, which are invariant under these groups. For specific examples we calculate the entanglement measures. In particular, we derive an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation for UU-invariant states, and we find a counterexample to the additivity conjecture for the relative entropy of entanglement.

Abstract:
The goal of this paper is to study irreducible families W(b;a) of codimension 4, arithmetically Gorenstein schemes X of P^n defined by the submaximal minors of a t x t matrix A with entries homogeneous forms of degree a_j-b_i. Under some numerical assumption on a_j and b_i we prove that the closure of W(b;a) is an irreducible component of Hilb^{p(x)}(P^n), we show that Hilb^{p(x)}(P^n) is generically smooth along W(b;a) and we compute the dimension of W(b;a) in terms of a_j and b_i. To achieve these results we first prove that X is determined by a regular section of the twisted conormal sheaf I_Y/I^2_Y(s) where s=deg(det(A)) and Y is a codimension 2, arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay scheme of P^n defined by the maximal minors of the matrix obtained deleting a suitable row of A.

Abstract:
The relation is studied between the entanglement production and collective radiation by an ensemble of atoms. Entanglement production is quantified by means of a general measure introduced earlier by the author. Primary emphasis is placed on the entanglement generated by pseudospin density matrices. The problem of collective atomic radiation can be described by the pseudospin evolution equations. These equations define the evolutional entanglement generated by the related density matrices. Under conditions of superradiant emission, the entanglement production exhibits sharp peaks at the delay time, where the intensity of radiation is maximal. The possibility of regulating the occurrence of such peaks by punctuated superradiance is discussed, which suggests the feasibility of {\it punctuated entanglement production}.

Abstract:
In this paper we give a unified approach in categorical setting to the problem of finding the Galois closure of a finite cover, which includes as special cases the familiar finite separable field extensions, finite unramified covers of a connected undirected graph, finite covering spaces of a locally connected topological space, and finite \'etale covers of a smooth projective irreducible algebraic variety. We present two algorithms whose outputs are shown to be desired Galois closures. An upper bound of the degree of the Galois closure under each algorithm is also obtained.

Abstract:
We present a method to determine the decay of multiparticle quantum correlations as quantified by the geometric measure of entanglement under the influence of decoherence. With this, we compare the robustness of entanglement in GHZ-, cluster-, W- and Dicke states of four qubits and show that the Dicke state is most robust. Finally, we determine the geometric measure analytically for decaying GHZ and cluster states of an arbitrary number of qubits.

Abstract:
We investigate the lifetime of macroscopic entanglement under the influence of decoherence. For GHZ-type superposition states we find that the lifetime decreases with the size of the system (i.e. the number of independent degrees of freedom) and the effective number of subsystems that remain entangled decreases with time. For a class of other states (e.g. cluster states), however, we show that the lifetime of entanglement is independent of the size of the system.

Abstract:
In order to understand the characteristics of quantum entanglement of massive particles under Lorentz boost, we first introduce a relevant relativistic spin observable, and evaluate its expectation values for the Bell states under Lorentz boost. Then we show that maximal violation of the Bell's inequality can be achieved by properly adjusting the directions of the spin measurement even in a relativistically moving inertial frame. Based on this we infer that the entanglement information is preserved under Lorentz boost as a form of correlation information determined by the transformation characteristic of the Bell state in use.