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 Robert J. Brecha Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5020664 Abstract: Forty years ago, the results of modeling, as presented in The Limits to Growth, reinvigorated a discussion about exponentially growing consumption of natural resources, ranging from metals to fossil fuels to atmospheric capacity, and how such consumption could not continue far into the future. Fifteen years earlier, M. King Hubbert had made the projection that petroleum production in the continental United States would likely reach a maximum around 1970, followed by a world production maximum a few decades later. The debate about “peak oil”, as it has come to be called, is accompanied by some of the same vociferous denials, myths and ideological polemicizing that have surrounded later representations of The Limits to Growth. In this review, we present several lines of evidence as to why arguments for a near-term peak in world conventional oil production should be taken seriously—both in the sense that there is strong evidence for peak oil and in the sense that being societally unprepared for declining oil production will have serious consequences.
 BMC Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-12-130 Abstract: Background People vary in how they respond to symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess whether serious disease is more likely to be present in patients who report that they take any symptoms less seriously than other people do, and to assess the reliability of a question which can be used to identify the extent to which patients take any symptom seriously. To do this we assessed whether the likelihood of detecting colorectal cancer is higher in patients who report that they take symptoms less seriously than other people do. Methods Cross sectional study of 7736 patients who had colonoscopy to find colorectal cancer. Before colonoscopy, patients completed a questionnaire on bowel symptoms and were also asked: “Compared to other people of your age and sex, how seriously do you think you take any symptoms?” Likelihood of detecting colorectal cancer according to responses to this question was assessed by logistic regression models, unadjusted and adjusted for symptoms and other known predictors of colorectal cancer. Question reliability was assessed in a different sample using percentage agreement and the kappa statistic for the answers given by each patient on two occasions. Agreement between patient and doctor responses was also assessed (n = 108). Results Patients who reported they took symptoms less seriously were 3.28 (95%CI: 2.02, 5.33) times more likely to have colorectal cancer than patients who took symptoms more seriously than others. The effect was smaller (1.85 (95%CI: 1.11, 3.09)), but remained statistically significant in models including symptoms and other predictors of colorectal cancer. The question was reliable: on repeat questioning, 70% of responses were in absolute agreement and 92% were within 1 category, kappa 57%. Patient-doctor agreement was 66%, within 1 category 92%, kappa 48%. Conclusion Patients who take their symptoms less seriously have a considerably higher likelihood of colorectal cancer than those who identify themselves as taking any symptoms more seriously than other people. The question is easy to ask and has good reliability. Doctors also reliably identify how patients assess themselves. Assessment of how seriously patients take any symptoms can contribute to the clinical assessment of a patient.
 BMC Medical Ethics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-8-11 Abstract: In the developed world, there is great heterogeneity of regulatory practices regarding human tissues. In this paper, we outline the salient ethical issues raised by tissue exportation, review the current ethical guidelines and norms, review the literature on what is known empirically about perceptions and practices with respect to tissue exportation from the developing to the developed world, set out what needs to be known in terms of a research agenda, and outline what needs to be done immediately in terms of setting best practices. We argue that the current status of tissue exportation is ambiguous and requires clarification lest problems that have plagued the developed world occur in the context of global heath research with attendant worsening of inequities. Central to solutions to current ethical concerns entail moving beyond concern with individual level consent and embracing a robust interaction with communities engaged in research.Greater attention to community engagement is required to understand the diverse issues associated with tissue exportation.Human tissues consist of a heterogeneous set of biological materials of interest from a scientific point of view for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents, and the study of genetic determinants of disease. Knowledge derived from human tissues research has led to fundamental advances in understanding a wide range of human diseases [1]. As clinical and basic research move to an increasingly global scope, particularly with the recent focus on tackling the major health issues in the developing world, it is important to understand the wide range of ethical issues involved in the exportation of tissue from the developing to the developed world.Tissue analysis is a lucrative field, and it is unclear how benefits are explained to research participants, thus rendering aspects of informed consent problematic. The fate of exported tissues is often unaccounted for, making oversight difficult. Guidelines are p
 Gweneth Bratton Lazenby Infectious Disease Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/idr.2011.e4 Abstract: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the second most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. It is associated with significant morbidity in women: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), concurrent vaginitis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), post-operative infection, and pregnancy complications. TV infection has been implicated in HIV acquisition and transmission in men and women. There are multiple mechanisms to explain this association. TV is not routinely screened for in asymptomatic patients; however, infected individuals are most often asymptomatic. Due to the association with the spread of HIV infection, screening should not be limited to symptomatic patients or those seeking treatment for STIs. There are a variety of tests available to detect TV. Treatment of TV has demonstrated lower rates of HIV acquisition in at risk women. In HIV positive men and women, treatment decreases the amount of genital HIV shedding and subsequent infectivity. Initiation of an effective TV screening and treatment program in HIV positive and HIV susceptible populations may limit further transmission of HIV
 Gregory A Petsko Genome Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2010-11-7-127 Abstract: The Congress of the United States is currently debating the budget for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the world's largest provider of research funding for biomedical science in general (and genome biology in particular), and $32 billion is the figure they are currently recommending for fiscal year 2011. If that is the number ultimately awarded, the biomedical science research community in the US is going to face some agonizing choices.Before the stimulus funding of 2009-2010, the NIH budget was$30 billion. $32 billion would represent an increase, but one substantially less than the level of scientific inflation, which has been averaging about 6% a year over the past few years. And the base budget was too small already back then, because of years of declining funding (in inflation-adjusted dollars) under George W Bush. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) estimated that$37 billion would be needed to bring the budget up to where it should be, and to avoid what some are calling a 'cliff' in funding as the $10 billion in stimulus money that was added to the base budget last year runs out. My personal view was that we needed something as close to$40 billion as we could get. $32 billion isn't close at all.Things could change before the final budget is passed, but I doubt it. Congress is scared to death about the burgeoning US deficit, which is stupid because we are in a deep recession with close to double-digit unemployment and a real interest rate close to zero. Keynesian economics tells you that in such a situation, where monetary policy is useless because interest rates cannot go negative, the government should be spending more, not less. And spending money on scientific research is particularly smart, because it has been estimated that every dollar spent that way rapidly produces 2.0-2.5 dollars of economic output, one of the highest multipliers for any form of government investment. But the US Congress has been remarkably  Yi SHI Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011, Abstract: The term "superbugs" refers to microbes with resistance to almost all antibiotics specifically recommended for the treatment.The infection caused by Gram negative bacilli with resistance to carbapenem antibiotics has posed a great challenge to clinical work in recent years,and it has become tougher with the improper use of antibiotics.As for prevention from formation and spread of carbapenem resistance producers,detection and monitoring of carbapenemase should be strengthened,in which the engagement of the board and executive of hospitals,quality control in laboratory,optimized and proper use of antibiotics,and prevention of hospital infection are of great importance.  JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2010, Abstract: Bacteraemia due to nonfermentative gram negative bacilli appears to be increasing in frequencyparticularly in hospitalized patients with severe underlying illness. A total of 159 (79.50%) organismswere isolated from blood cultures of 200 seriously ill patients. Out of these, 73 (45.91%) werenonfermentative gram negative bacilli. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest isolate (32.88%)followed by Acinetobacter spp. (23.28%) and Burkholderia cepacia (10.96%). Analysis of antimicrobialsusceptibility testing showed multidrug resistant pattern with majority of the isolates being resistant tothree or more drugs  Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.033003 Abstract: We discuss the experimental requirements for a mass hierarchy measurement for$\theta_{13}=0$using muon neutrino disappearance. We find that a specially optimized neutrino factory at$L \simeq 6 \,000 \, \mathrm{km}\$ could do this measurement using extreme luminosities. In particular, we do not require charge identification for this purpose. In order to measure the mass hierarchy for more adequate luminosities, we explore the capabilities of low energy narrow band off-axis beams, which have relatively more events at low energies. We find that, in this case, the energy resolution of the detector quickly becomes the limiting factor of the measurement, and significantly affects the baseline optimization for determining the mass hierarchy.
 World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010, Abstract: As colorectal cancer and colorectal liver metastases become a serious public health problem, new treatment modalities are needed in order to achieve better results. In the last decade there has been very important progress in oncology, with new and more effective chemotherapeutic agents administered alone or in combination improving the resectability rate in up to 40% of patients with colorectal liver metastases. Advances in interventional radiology, in particular, with the use of portal vein embolization and radiofrequency thermal ablation are new strategies allowing major liver resections and treatment of small liver metastases or early recurrences. Surgery, however, remains the gold standard strategy with intention to treat. In this review article we will describe the advanced role of surgery in the multidisciplinary approach to colorectal liver metastases, and the clinical problems the liver surgeon has to deal with, such as the resectability of the metastases, the presence of bilobar liver lesions and extrahepatic disease, the impact of chemotherapy in already resectable liver metastases, the problem of vanishing metastases after chemotherapy and the dilemma of staged or combined liver and colon operations and which organ first in the clinical scenario of synchronous colorectal liver metastases.
 Graeme Tucker Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.22014 Abstract: Systems Biology is a relatively new branch of biology that brings together an interdisciplinary team of scientist, computer engineers and mathematicians. Biomedicine can gain much from the input of Systems Biology. The object and aims of this article centre on clarification and direction for Systems Biology, notably in regard to human health and disease.
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