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Human-Mobility-Based Sensor Context-Aware Routing Protocol for Delay-Tolerant Data Gathering in Multi-Sink Cell-Phone-Based Sensor Networks
M. B. Shah,S. N. Merchant,U. B. Desai
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/785984
Abstract: Ubiquitous use of cell phones encourages development of novel applications with sensors embedded in cell phones. The collection of information generated by these devices is a challenging task considering volatile topologies and energy-based scarce resources. Further, the data delivery to the sink is delay tolerant. Mobility of cell phones is opportunistically exploited for forwarding sensor generated data towards the sink. Human mobility model shows truncated power law distribution of flight length, pause time, and intercontact time. The power law behavior of inter-contact time often discourages routing of data using naive forwarding schemes. This work exploits the flight length and the pause time distributions of human mobility to design a better and efficient routing strategy. We propose a Human-Mobility-based Sensor Context-Aware Routing protocol (HMSCAR), which exploits human mobility patterns to smartly forward data towards the sink basically comprised of wi-fi hot spots or cellular base stations. The simulation results show that HMSCAR significantly outperforms the SCAR, SFR, and GRAD-MOB on the aspects of delivery ratio and time delay. A multi-sink scenario and single-copy replication scheme is assumed.
Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP) for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
R. Prema, R. Rangarajan
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.45019
Abstract: Several wireless sensor network applications ought to decide the intrinsic variance between energy efficient communication and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In order to address this challenge, we propose the Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions. Extensive simulation results prove that the proposed PARP attains better QoS and reduced power consumption.
Energy Aware GPSR Routing Protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network
S Nouh, Z Geta
Zede Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Energy is the scarce resource in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and it determines the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, WSN algorithms and routing protocols should be selected in a manner which fulfills these energy requirements. This paper presents a solution to increase the lifetime of WSNs by decreasing their energy consumption. The proposed solution is based on incorporating energy information into Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) Protocol. The proposed solution performs better in energy consumption, network lifetime and packet delivery ratio, with a performance gain of Network Lifetime 45.9% - 78.69%. However, the performance is comparatively low in average delay because of computational complexity. Key Words: Wireless Sensor Networks, GPSR protocol, Geographical routing protocol, `Energy aware routing protocol
Performance Comparison of a QoS Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Bhaskar Bhuyan, Nityananda Sarma
Communications and Network (CN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2016.81006
Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a challenging area of research because of the limited availability of resources in WSNs. The resources in WSNs are processing power, memory, bandwidth, energy, communication capacity, etc. Delay is an important QoS parameter for delivery of delay sensitive data in a time constraint sensor network environment. In this paper, an extended version of a delay aware routing protocol for WSNs is presented along with its performance comparison with different deployment scenarios of sensor nodes, taking IEEE802.15.4 as the underlying MAC protocol. The performance evaluation of the protocol is done by simulation using ns-2 simulator.
Energy-Aware QoS Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
M.K. Jeya Kumar,R.S. Rajesh
International Journal of Soft Computing , 2012,
Abstract: For effective routing in wireless sensor networks many routing protocols have been implemented. Energy awareness is an essential design issue and almost all of these routing protocols are considered as energy efficient and its ultimate objective is to maximize the whole network lifetime. However, the introduction of video and imaging sensors have posed additional challenges. Transmission of video and imaging data requires both energy and QoS aware routing in order to ensure efficient usage of the sensors and effective access to the gathered measurements. In this study, the performance of the energy-aware QoS routing Protocol are analyzed in different performance metrics like average lifetime of a node, average delay per packet and network throughput. The parameters considered in this study are end-to-end delay, real time data generation/capture rates, packet drop probability and buffer size. The network throughput for realtime and non-realtime data was also has been analyzed. The simulation has been done in NS2 simulation environment and the simulation results were analyzed with respect to different metrics.
Performance of Distributed Energy Aware Routing (DEAR) Protocol with Cooperative Caching for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Piyush Charan, Tahsin Usmani, Rajeev Paulus, Syed Hasan Saeed
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2019.113003
Considering Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in today’s scenario, sending and receiving uninterrupted sensory data remains a challenge to achieve with minimal latency and energy consumption as low as possible. Energy consumption is exponentially growing in computing devices such as computers, embedded systems, portable devices, and wireless sensor networks. Extensive research has been in practice recently to minimize energy consumption without compromising the Quality of Service (QoS) that is to provide data to the requester node with minimum Delay and high Reliability. In this paper, a cooperative caching algorithm is used with the proposed Distributed Energy Aware Routing (DEAR) protocol that attempts to minimize energy consumption by reducing the packet overhead in the network and also providing the data to the requester with minimum delay by retrieving requested datum from the nearby caching node available in the vicinity of the requester or sink node. The simulation results clearly show that the energy consumption is less when the grid-based analytical model is used against the star/cluster based model while keeping the same necessary attributes.
Tree Based Energy and Congestion Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Amir Hossein Mohajerzadeh, Mohammad Hossien Yaghmaee
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.22021
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have inherent and unique characteristics rather than traditional networks. They have many different constraints, such as computational power, storage capacity, energy supply and etc; of course the most important issue is their energy constraint. Energy aware routing protocol is very important in WSN, but routing protocol which only considers energy has not efficient performance. Therefore considering other parameters beside energy efficiency is crucial for protocols efficiency. Depending on sensor network application, different parameters can be considered for its protocols. Congestion management can affect routing protocol performance. Congestion occurrence in network nodes leads to increasing packet loss and energy consumption. Another parameter which affects routing protocol efficiency is providing fairness in nodes energy consumption. When fairness is not considered in routing process, network will be partitioned very soon and then the network performance will be decreased. In this paper a Tree based Energy and Congestion Aware Routing Protocol (TECARP) is proposed. The proposed protocol is an energy efficient routing protocol which tries to manage congestion and to provide fairness in network. Simulation results shown in this paper imply that the TECARP has achieved its goals.
SCARP: Secure Congestion Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Ch.Radhika Rani,S.Nagendram,Subba Reddy Oota
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks sense various kinds of information, process them locally and communicate it to the outside world via satellite or Internet. In the near future, sensor networks will play a major role in collecting and disseminating information from the fields where ordinary networks are unreachable for various environmental and strategical reasons. Hence it is increasingly likely that sensorswill be shared by multiple applications and gather heterogeneous data of different priorities. With such concentration on wireless sensor networks, vital issues like security and congestion control are to be taken care of. We propose Secure Congestion Aware Routing protocol (SCARP), a protocol designed for mitigating congestion by dedicating a portion of network to forward high-priority traffic primarily andalso satisfies the major security properties like data authentication, data secrecy, replay protection, freshness with low energy consumption which are the major factors affecting the wireless sensor networks.
Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks  [cached]
Mann Raminder P,Namuduri Kamesh R,Pendse Ravi
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2005,
Abstract: Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP) suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.
Mitigating Congestion Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
B. Pruthvi raj, O.Srinivasa Rao#2, Dr MHM Krishna Prasad*3
International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: - Energy efficient protocol is very important in wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) because the nodes in WSNs are usually battery operated sensing devices with limited energy resources and replacing the batteries is usually not an option. We propose a class of algorithms that enforce differentiated routing based on the congested areas of a network and data priority. The basic protocol, called Congestion-Aware Routing (CAR), discovers the congested zone of the network that exists between highpriority data sources and the data sink and, using simple forwarding rules, dedicates this portion of the network to forwarding primarily high-priority traffic. Since CAR requires some overhead for establishing the high-priority routing zone, it is unsuitable for highly mobile data sources. Congestion occurrence in network nodes leads to increase packet loss and energy consumption. Another parameter which affects routing protocol efficiency is providing fairness in nodes energy consumption. When fairness is not considered in routing process, network will be partitioned very soon and then the network performance will be decreased. To overcome these issues, an Index Base Congestion aware Routing Protocol (ICRP) proposed. The proposed protocol is energy efficient routing protocols which try to control congestion and to provide fairness in network. The main goal in ICRP provides solution for better energy utilization of a node and better Quality of Services (QoS).
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