Abstract:
Fixed parameter tractable algorithms for bounded treewidth are known to exist for a wide class of graph optimization problems. While most research in this area has been focused on exact algorithms, it is hard to find decompositions of treewidth sufficiently small to make these al- gorithms fast enough for practical use. Consequently, tree decomposition based algorithms have limited applicability to large scale optimization. However, by first reducing the input graph so that a small width tree decomposition can be found, we can harness the power of tree decomposi- tion based techniques in a heuristic algorithm, usable on graphs of much larger treewidth than would be tractable to solve exactly. We propose a solution merging heuristic to the Steiner Tree Problem that applies this idea. Standard local search heuristics provide a natural way to generate subgraphs with lower treewidth than the original instance, and subse- quently we extract an improved solution by solving the instance induced by this subgraph. As such the fixed parameter tractable algorithm be- comes an e?cient tool for our solution merging heuristic. For a large class of sparse benchmark instances the algorithm is able to find small width tree decompositions on the union of generated solutions. Subsequently it can often improve on the generated solutions fast.

Abstract:
We study the behavior of an algorithm derived from the cavity method for the Prize-Collecting Steiner Tree (PCST) problem on graphs. The algorithm is based on the zero temperature limit of the cavity equations and as such is formally simple (a fixed point equation resolved by iteration) and distributed (parallelizable). We provide a detailed comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms on a wide range of existing benchmarks networks and random graphs. Specifically, we consider an enhanced derivative of the Goemans-Williamson heuristics and the DHEA solver, a Branch and Cut Linear/Integer Programming based approach. The comparison shows that the cavity algorithm outperforms the two algorithms in most large instances both in running time and quality of the solution. Finally we prove a few optimality properties of the solutions provided by our algorithm, including optimality under the two post-processing procedures defined in the Goemans-Williamson derivative and global optimality in some limit cases.

Abstract:
We obtain polynomial-time approximation-preserving reductions (up to a factor of 1 + \epsilon) from the prize-collecting Steiner tree and prize-collecting Steiner forest problems in planar graphs to the corresponding problems in graphs of bounded treewidth. We also give an exact algorithm for the prize-collecting Steiner tree problem that runs in polynomial time for graphs of bounded treewidth. This, combined with our reductions, yields a PTAS for the prize-collecting Steiner tree problem in planar graphs and generalizes the PTAS of Borradaile, Klein and Mathieu for the Steiner tree problem in planar graphs. Our results build upon the ideas of Borradaile, Klein and Mathieu and the work of Bateni, Hajiaghayi and Marx on a PTAS for the Steiner forest problem in planar graphs. Our main technical result is on the properties of primal-dual algorithms for Steiner tree and forest problems in general graphs when they are run with scaled up penalties.

Abstract:
In this paper, we present an exact algorithm for the Steiner tree problem. The algorithm is based on certain pre-computed index structures. Our algorithm offers a practical solution for the Steiner tree problems on graphs of large size and bounded number of terminals.

Abstract:
Graph-regularized semi-supervised learning has been used effectively for classification when (i) instances are connected through a graph, and (ii) labeled data is scarce. If available, using multiple relations (or graphs) between the instances can improve the prediction performance. On the other hand, when these relations have varying levels of veracity and exhibit varying relevance for the task, very noisy and/or irrelevant relations may deteriorate the performance. As a result, an effective weighing scheme needs to be put in place. In this work, we propose a robust and scalable approach for multi-relational graph-regularized semi-supervised classification. Under a convex optimization scheme, we simultaneously infer weights for the multiple graphs as well as a solution. We provide a careful analysis of the inferred weights, based on which we devise an algorithm that filters out irrelevant and noisy graphs and produces weights proportional to the informativeness of the remaining graphs. Moreover, the proposed method is linearly scalable w.r.t. the number of edges in the union of the multiple graphs. Through extensive experiments we show that our method yields superior results under different noise models, and under increasing number of noisy graphs and intensity of noise, as compared to a list of baselines and state-of-the-art approaches.

Abstract:
Signal-processing on graphs has developed into a very active field of research during the last decade. In particular, the number of applications using frames constructed from graphs, like wavelets on graphs, has substantially increased. To attain scalability for large graphs, fast graph-signal filtering techniques are needed. In this contribution, we propose an accelerated algorithm based on the Lanczos method that adapts to the Laplacian spectrum without explicitly computing it. The result is an accurate, robust, scalable and efficient algorithm. Compared to existing methods based on Chebyshev polynomials, our solution achieves higher accuracy without increasing the overall complexity significantly. Furthermore, it is particularly well suited for graphs with large spectral gaps.

Abstract:
We study the parameterized complexity of the directed variant of the classical {\sc Steiner Tree} problem on various classes of directed sparse graphs. While the parameterized complexity of {\sc Steiner Tree} parameterized by the number of terminals is well understood, not much is known about the parameterization by the number of non-terminals in the solution tree. All that is known for this parameterization is that both the directed and the undirected versions are W[2]-hard on general graphs, and hence unlikely to be fixed parameter tractable FPT. The undirected {\sc Steiner Tree} problem becomes FPT when restricted to sparse classes of graphs such as planar graphs, but the techniques used to show this result break down on directed planar graphs. In this article we precisely chart the tractability border for {\sc Directed Steiner Tree} (DST) on sparse graphs parameterized by the number of non-terminals in the solution tree. Specifically, we show that the problem is fixed parameter tractable on graphs excluding a topological minor, but becomes W[2]-hard on graphs of degeneracy 2. On the other hand we show that if the subgraph induced by the terminals is required to be acyclic then the problem becomes FPT on graphs of bounded degeneracy. We further show that our algorithm achieves the best possible running time dependence on the solution size and degeneracy of the input graph, under standard complexity theoretic assumptions. Using the ideas developed for DST, we also obtain improved algorithms for {\sc Dominating Set} on sparse undirected graphs. These algorithms are asymptotically optimal.

Abstract:
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) enables flexible network resource allocations for traffic engineering, but at the same time the scalability problem becomes more serious since traffic is more difficult to be aggregated. Those crucial issues in SDN have been studied for unicast but have not been explored for multicast traffic, and addressing those issues for multicast is more challenging since the identities and the number of members in a multicast group can be arbitrary. In this paper, therefore, we propose a new multicast tree for SDN, named Branch-aware Steiner Tree (BST). The BST problem is difficult since it needs to jointly minimize the numbers of the edges and the branch nodes in a tree, and we prove that it is NP-Hard and inapproximable within $k$, which denotes the number of group members. We further design an approximation algorithm, called Branch Aware Edge Reduction Algorithm (BAERA), to solve the problem. Simulation results demonstrate that the trees obtained by BAERA are more bandwidth-efficient and scalable than the shortest-path trees and traditional Steiner trees. Most importantly, BAERA is computation-efficient to be deployed in SDN since it can generate a tree on massive networks in small time.

Abstract:
Automated generation of high-quality topical hierarchies for a text collection is a dream problem in knowledge engineering with many valuable applications. In this paper a scalable and robust algorithm is proposed for constructing a hierarchy of topics from a text collection. We divide and conquer the problem using a top-down recursive framework, based on a tensor orthogonal decomposition technique. We solve a critical challenge to perform scalable inference for our newly designed hierarchical topic model. Experiments with various real-world datasets illustrate its ability to generate robust, high-quality hierarchies efficiently. Our method reduces the time of construction by several orders of magnitude, and its robust feature renders it possible for users to interactively revise the hierarchy.

Abstract:
We propose polynomial-time algorithms that sparsify planar and bounded-genus graphs while preserving optimal or near-optimal solutions to Steiner problems. Our main contribution is a polynomial-time algorithm that, given an unweighted graph $G$ embedded on a surface of genus $g$ and a designated face $f$ bounded by a simple cycle of length $k$, uncovers a set $F \subseteq E(G)$ of size polynomial in $g$ and $k$ that contains an optimal Steiner tree for any set of terminals that is a subset of the vertices of $f$. We apply this general theorem to prove that: * given an unweighted graph $G$ embedded on a surface of genus $g$ and a terminal set $S \subseteq V(G)$, one can in polynomial time find a set $F \subseteq E(G)$ that contains an optimal Steiner tree $T$ for $S$ and that has size polynomial in $g$ and $|E(T)|$; * an analogous result holds for an optimal Steiner forest for a set $S$ of terminal pairs; * given an unweighted planar graph $G$ and a terminal set $S \subseteq V(G)$, one can in polynomial time find a set $F \subseteq E(G)$ that contains an optimal (edge) multiway cut $C$ separating $S$ and that has size polynomial in $|C|$. In the language of parameterized complexity, these results imply the first polynomial kernels for Steiner Tree and Steiner Forest on planar and bounded-genus graphs (parameterized by the size of the tree and forest, respectively) and for (Edge) Multiway Cut on planar graphs (parameterized by the size of the cutset). Steiner Tree and similar "subset" problems were identified in [Demaine, Hajiaghayi, Computer J., 2008] as important to the quest to widen the reach of the theory of bidimensionality ([Demaine et al, JACM 2005], [Fomin et al, SODA 2010]). Therefore, our results can be seen as a leap forward to achieve this broader goal. Additionally, we obtain a weighted variant of our main contribution.