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Environmental flow for Monsoon Rivers in India: The Yamuna River as a case study  [PDF]
Vikram Soni,Shashank Shekhar,Diwan Singh
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We consider the flows of Monsoon Rivers in India that will permit the river to perform all its natural functions. About 80% of the total flow for Indian rivers is during the monsoon and the remaining 20% is during the non monsoon period. By carrying out a case study of the river Yamuna in Delhi we find that at least 50% of the virgin monsoon (July to September) flow is required for the transport of the full spectrum of soil particles in the river sediment. A similar flow is needed for adequate recharge of the floodplain aquifers along river. For the non monsoon period (October to June) about 60% of the virgin flow is necessary to avoid the growth of still water algae and to support river biodiversity.
Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Surface Sediments of River Yamuna in Delhi, India  [PDF]
Puneeta Pandey, P.S. Khillare, Krishan Kumar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.25059
Abstract: The present study reports the concentration levels and distribution patterns of the organochlorine pesticide residues in the surface sediments of river Yamuna in the Indian capital state, Delhi. Analytical measurements were carried out for twenty organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Pre-monsoon, Monsoon and Post-monsoon seasons, at six different sampling locations along the 22 km stretch of the river Yamuna in Delhi. The results revealed contamination of the surface sediments with several persistent organochlorine pesticides. Endrin aldehyde, Endosulfan sulfate and DDT showed the highest percentage composition of OCP at all the sampling sites in all the three seasons. The total organochlorine pesticides level ranged from 157.71 - 307.66 ng/g in Pre-monsoon to 195.86 - 577.74 ng/g in Monsoon and 306.9 - 844.45 ng/g in the Post-monsoon season. This not only demonstrates the pollution of the river with pesticide residues, but also the necessity of a continuous long-term monitoring of the affected environment.
Impacts of Invasive Fishes on Fishery Dynamics of the Yamuna River, India  [PDF]
Atul K. Singh, Abubakar Ansari, Sharad C. Srivastava, Pankaj Verma, A. K. Pathak
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.510086
Abstract:

Invasion, spread and predominance of alien invasive fishes were studied in 950-km-long stretch of the Yamuna River. The fish yield ranged between 32 t/km/yr to 240 t/km/yr and the catch of alien invasive fishes dominated over local fishes in the fishery, which was over 96% at Etawah. The calculated Invasion Coefficient Index (Ixi) of alien invasive fishes was in the range of 0.12 to 0.31 indicating a major loss to the local fish diversity. The calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficient was found to have positive correlation of 0.757 and 0.710 for common carp and tilapia respectively with locally captured Indian major carps (IMC). The results of this study highlighted how unintentional spread of alien invasive fishes due to rapid aquaculture diversification and intensification has invaded into the Yamuna River causing severe loss to the local fishery. The invasion of alien fishes has been mapped for the Yamuna River at different locations using GIS tools. The results of this study invite attention on the management and sustainability of the local fishery and ecosystem health of the river.

Water quality analysis of River Yamuna using water quality index in the national capital territory, India (2000–2009)
Deepshikha Sharma,Arun Kansal
Applied Water Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13201-011-0011-4
Abstract: River Yamuna, in the national capital territory (NCT), commonly called Delhi (India), has been subjected to immense degradation and pollution due to the huge amount of domestic wastewater entering the river. Despite the persistent efforts in the form of the Yamuna Action Plan phase I and II (YAP) (since 1993 to date), the river quality in NCT has not improved. The restoration of river water quality has been a major challenge to the environmental managers. In the present paper, water quality index (WQI) was estimated for the River Yamuna within the NCT to study the aftereffects of the projects implemented during YAP I and II. The study was directed toward the use of WQI to describe the level of pollution in the river for a period of 10 years (2000–2009). The study also identifies the critical pollutants affecting the river water quality during its course through the city. The indices have been computed for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season at four locations, namely Palla, ODRB, Nizamuddin and Okhla in the river. It was found that the water quality ranged from good to marginal category at Palla and fell under poor category at all other locations. BOD, DO, total and fecal coliforms and free ammonia were found to be critical parameters for the stretch.
Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River
Bhupander Kumar,Satish Kumar Singh,Meenu Mishra,Sanjay Kumar
Journal of Xenobiotics , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/xeno.2012.e6
Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively). The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)using World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1). However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1). The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.
Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India
Deepshikha Sharma,Ruchi Gupta,Ram Karan Singh,Arun Kansal
Applied Water Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13201-011-0022-1
Abstract: This paper is focused on the monitoring of the diffuse pollution characteristics from the agricultural land confining the River Yamuna in Delhi (capital of India). Agricultural fields surrounding the Yamuna river are direct nonpoint source of pollution impacting the river quality. The study includes watershed delineation for the River Yamuna using SWAT (2005) and land use classification for the city using GIS and remote sensing. Thereafter, the rainfall-runoff pollutant concentrations from the mixed agricultural land use were assessed for the 2006 and 2007 monsoon period (July–September). Runoff was measured using SCS method and grab samples of rainfall runoff were collected at three stations namely Old Delhi Railway Bridge (ODRB), Nizamuddin and Okhla bridge in Delhi. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical and biological parameters. Rainfall runoff and event mean concentrations (EMCs) for different water quality parameters were characterized and the effect of land use was analyzed. The average EMCs for BOD, COD, ammonia, nitrate, TKN, hardness, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfates, phosphate, fluorides and TC were 21.82 mg/L, 73.48 mg/L, 72.68 μg/L, 229.87 μg/L, 15.32 μg/L, 11.36 mg/L, 117.44 mg/L, 77.60 mg/L, 117.64 mg/L, 135.82 mg/L, 0.08 mg/L, 0.85 mg/L and 2,827.47 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The EMCs of TSS, nitrogen and its compounds, phosphate and BOD were high.
Status of organochlorine pesticides in the drinking water well-field located in the Delhi region of the flood plains of river Yamuna
P. K. Mutiyar, A. K. Mittal,A. Pekdeger
Drinking Water Engineering and Science (DWES) & Discussions (DWESD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/dwes-4-51-2011
Abstract: This study presents the occurrence of pesticides in a well-field located in Yamuna flood plain of Delhi region. Ground water sampling campaigns were carried out during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods covering 21 borewells and 5 Ranney wells. Major 17 organochlorine pesticides (OCP's) along with other water quality parameters were monitored during this period. Pesticide concentrations were determined using GC-ECD, while GC-MS was used for confirmatory purposes. OCP's groups like ∑HCH, ∑DDT, endosulfan and aldrin were observed in this well-field. Concentration of OCPs from Ranney well exceeded the limit (1 μg l 1) prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in pre-monsoon season, though OCP levels in borewells were within BIS limits. However, these levels were very close to the World Health Organisation (WHO) and European Union (EU) limit of for pesticides (0.5 μg l 1) in many samples. Borewell produced better quality water compared to the water from Ranney wells. Although, the level of OCP's was slightly lower than prescribed limit of national regulatory agency but such low doses may cause long-term damage to human populations if such water is consumed for longer durations. At low doses OCP's acts as endocrine disrupting agent and cause metabolic disorders in local population.
Status of organochlorine pesticides in the drinking water well-field located in the Delhi region of the flood plains of river Yamuna  [PDF]
P. K. Mutiyar,A. K. Mittal,A. Pekdeger
Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/dwesd-4-85-2011
Abstract: This study presents the occurrence of pesticides in a well-field located in Yamuna flood plain of Delhi region. Ground water sampling campaigns were carried out during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods covering 21 bore-wells and 5 Ranney wells. Major 17 organochlorine pesticides (OCP's) along with other water quality parameters were monitored during this period. Pesticide concentrations were determined using GC- ECD, while GC-MS was used for confirmatory purposes. OCP's groups like ∑HCH, ∑DDT, endosulfan and aldrin were observed in this well-field. Concentration of OCPs from Ranney wells exceeded the limit (1 μg l 1) prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in pre-monsoon season, though OCP levels in bore wells were within BIS limits. However, these levels were very close to the World Health Organisation (WHO) and European Union (EU) limit of for pesticides (0.5 μg l 1) in many samples. Bore well produced better quality water compared to the water from Ranney wells. Although, the level of OCP's was slightly lower than prescribed limit of national regulatory agency but such low doses may cause long-term damage to human populations if such water is consumed for longer durations. At low doses OCP's acts as endocrine disrupting agent and cause metabolic disorders in local population.
ABOUT LOACH IN THE SAVA RIVER
D. Iveli?,I. Jablan,S. Svjetli?i?,Marina Piria
Ribarstvo : Croatian Journal of Fisheries , 2007,
Abstract: genus Cobitis. In the Sava river near Zagreb, two species of the genus Cobitis were recorded C. elongata and C. elongatoides. Both species live together in the mud covered slow flowing sections of the river. As no data on the biology of these two loach were found in literature, the aim of this study was to research the conditions of the loach from the Sava river. The fish were caught by electric gear on three locations in May 2006. Also, macroinvertebrates were collected and physical and chemical analyses of water were performed. Qualityof water of the Sava river is sufficient for growth, reproduction and presence of C. elongata, it is less so for C. elongatoides. Macroinvertebrates are present with 10 taxa at three investigated sites. Crustacea was dominant at Medsave site, Oligochaeta at Lijevi Dubrov~ak site and Diptera and Gastropoda at Setu{ site. There are some differences in morphometric parameters of both species, due to the differences in the body dimensions. Main differences occurred when measuring the value of prepectoral distance, the end of prepectoral distance and preventral distance of the fin. Condition factor of C. elongata was lower (0.61) than that of C. elongatoides (0.81). Length–mass relationships of C. elongata could be expressed by the following formula: W=0.0039xSL3,2063, and C. elongatoides W=0.0057xSL3,1872.
Influence of untreated and bacterial-treated Yamuna water on the plant growth of Zea mays L.
P Saini, A Kumar, J.N Shrivastava
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: In present study an attempt has been made to study the pollution level of river Yamuna at Agra, by analyzing the physico-chemical parameters of untreated and bacterial-treated water and its effect on the growth of maize plant. Among different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of treated water, the 100% concentration of treated water sample showed good effect on the plant growth over untreated sample and control.
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