Abstract:
This paper presents a regularized sampling method for multiband signals, that makes it possible to approach the Landau limit, while keeping the sensitivity to noise at a low level. The method is based on band-limited windowing, followed by trigonometric approximation in consecutive time intervals. The key point is that the trigonometric approximation "inherits" the multiband property, that is, its coefficients are formed by bursts of non-zero elements corresponding to the multiband components. It is shown that this method can be well combined with the recently proposed synchronous multi-rate sampling (SMRS) scheme, given that the resulting linear system is sparse and formed by ones and zeroes. The proposed method allows one to trade sampling efficiency for noise sensitivity, and is specially well suited for bounded signals with unbounded energy like those in communications, navigation, audio systems, etc. Besides, it is also applicable to finite energy signals and periodic band-limited signals (trigonometric polynomials). The paper includes a subspace method for blindly estimating the support of the multiband signal as well as its components, and the results are validated through several numerical examples.

Abstract:
Filtering of multi-band bandlimited signals by means of a linear digital filter with one or more stopbands is explored. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate that such a task can be accomplished using sampling rates lower than Landau rate, where the Landau rate is defined as the total bandwidth of the input signal. In order to reach such low rates Periodic Nonuniform Sampling is employed. We show that the proposed filtering method is most efficient when bandpass and multiband filtering is required. Necessary and sufficient conditions for filtering are derived, and an algorithm for designing PNS grids that allow sub-Landau sampling and filtering is proposed. Reconstruction systems are discussed and experimental examples are presented, which confirm the feasibility of the approach.

Abstract:
Xampling generalizes compressed sensing (CS) to reduced-rate sampling of analog signals. A unified framework is introduced for low rate sampling and processing of signals lying in a union of subspaces. Xampling consists of two main blocks: Analog compression that narrows down the input bandwidth prior to sampling with commercial devices followed by a nonlinear algorithm that detects the input subspace prior to conventional signal processing. A variety of analog CS applications are reviewed within the unified Xampling framework including a general filter-bank scheme for sparse shift-invariant spaces, periodic nonuniform sampling and modulated wideband conversion for multiband communications with unknown carrier frequencies, acquisition techniques for finite rate of innovation signals with applications to medical and radar imaging, and random demodulation of sparse harmonic tones. A hardware-oriented viewpoint is advocated throughout, addressing practical constraints and exemplifying hardware realizations where relevant. It will appear as a chapter in a book on "Compressed Sensing: Theory and Applications" edited by Yonina Eldar and Gitta Kutyniok.

Abstract:
Recent advances in optical systems make them ideal for undersampling multiband signals that have high bandwidths. In this paper we propose a new scheme for reconstructing multiband sparse signals using a small number of sampling channels. The scheme, which we call synchronous multirate sampling (SMRS), entails gathering samples synchronously at few different rates whose sum is significantly lower than the Nyquist sampling rate. The signals are reconstructed by solving a system of linear equations. We have demonstrated an accurate and robust reconstruction of signals using a small number of sampling channels that operate at relatively high rates. Sampling at higher rates increases the signal to noise ratio in samples. The SMRS scheme enables a significant reduction in the number of channels required when the sampling rate increases. We have demonstrated, using only three sampling channels, an accurate sampling and reconstruction of 4 real signals (8 bands). The matrices that are used to reconstruct the signals in the SMRS scheme also have low condition numbers. This indicates that the SMRS scheme is robust to noise in signals. The success of the SMRS scheme relies on the assumption that the sampled signals are sparse. As a result most of the sampled spectrum may be unaliased in at least one of the sampling channels. This is in contrast to multicoset sampling schemes in which an alias in one channel is equivalent to an alias in all channels. We have demonstrated that the SMRS scheme obtains similar performance using 3 sampling channels and a total sampling rate 8 times the Landau rate to an implementation of a multicoset sampling scheme that uses 6 sampling channels with a total sampling rate of 13 times the Landau rate.

Abstract:
Conventional sub-Nyquist sampling methods for analog signals exploit prior information about the spectral support. In this paper, we consider the challenging problem of blind sub-Nyquist sampling of multiband signals, whose unknown frequency support occupies only a small portion of a wide spectrum. Our primary design goals are efficient hardware implementation and low computational load on the supporting digital processing. We propose a system, named the modulated wideband converter, which first multiplies the analog signal by a bank of periodic waveforms. The product is then lowpass filtered and sampled uniformly at a low rate, which is orders of magnitude smaller than Nyquist. Perfect recovery from the proposed samples is achieved under certain necessary and sufficient conditions. We also develop a digital architecture, which allows either reconstruction of the analog input, or processing of any band of interest at a low rate, that is, without interpolating to the high Nyquist rate. Numerical simulations demonstrate many engineering aspects: robustness to noise and mismodeling, potential hardware simplifications, realtime performance for signals with time-varying support and stability to quantization effects. We compare our system with two previous approaches: periodic nonuniform sampling, which is bandwidth limited by existing hardware devices, and the random demodulator, which is restricted to discrete multitone signals and has a high computational load. In the broader context of Nyquist sampling, our scheme has the potential to break through the bandwidth barrier of state-of-the-art analog conversion technologies such as interleaved converters.

Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a time-stampless adaptive nonuniform sampling (TANS) framework, in which time increments between samples are determined by a function of the $m$ most recent increments and sample values. Since only past samples are used in computing time increments, it is not necessary to save sampling times (time stamps) for use in the reconstruction process. We focus on two TANS schemes for discrete-time stochastic signals: a greedy method, and a method based on dynamic programming. We analyze the performances of these schemes by computing (or bounding) their trade-offs between sampling rate and expected reconstruction distortion for autoregressive and Markovian signals. Simulation results support the analysis of the sampling schemes. We show that, by opportunistically adapting to local signal characteristics, TANS may lead to improved power efficiency in some applications.

Abstract:
In this paper, the optimal sampling strategies (uniform or nonuniform) and distortion tradeoffs for stationary Gaussian bandlimited periodic signals with additive white Gaussian noise are studied. Unlike the previous works that commonly consider the average distortion as the performance criterion, we justify and use both the average and variance of distortion as the performance criteria. To compute the optimal distortion, one needs to find the optimal sampling locations, as well as the optimal pre-sampling filter. A complete characterization of optimal distortion for the rates lower than half the Landau rate is provided. It is shown that nonuniform sampling outperforms uniform sampling. In addition, this nonuniform sampling is robust with respect to missing sampling values. Next, for the rates higher than half the Landau rate, we find bounds that are shown to be tight for some special cases. An extension of the results for random discrete periodic signals is discussed, with simulation results indicating that the intuitions from the continuous domain carry over to the discrete domain. Sparse signals are also considered where it is shown that uniform sampling is optimal above the Nyquist rate. Finally, we consider a sampling/quantization scheme for compressing the signal. Here, we show that the total distortion can be expressed as the sum of sampling and quantization distortions. This implies a lower bound on the distortion via Shannon's rate distortion theorem.

Abstract:
A novel nonuniform sampling digital spectrum processing method based on wavelet transform is studied in this paper. The fundamental principle of nonuniform sampling wavelet transform is introduced and the processing procedure is presented from the uniform wavelet to nonuniform wavelet. The nonuniform sampling wavelet transform method is applied to the frequency detection in this paper. The results of the experiments show that it is an effective method for signal detection and it can exactly estimate the frequencies of sinusoidal signals.

Abstract:
Periodic nonuniform sampling is a known method to sample spectrally sparse signals below the Nyquist rate. This strategy relies on the implicit assumption that the individual samplers are exposed to the entire frequency range. This assumption becomes impractical for wideband sparse signals. The current paper proposes an alternative sampling stage that does not require a full-band front end. Instead, signals are captured with an analog front end that consists of a bank of multipliers and lowpass filters whose cutoff is much lower than the Nyquist rate. The problem of recovering the original signal from the low-rate samples can be studied within the framework of compressive sampling. An appropriate parameter selection ensures that the samples uniquely determine the analog input. Moreover, the analog input can be stably reconstructed with digital algorithms. Numerical experiments support the theoretical analysis.

Abstract:
In homogenization theory and multiscale modeling, typical functions satisfy the scaling law $f^{\epsilon}(x) = f(x,x/\epsilon)$, where $f$ is periodic in the second variable and $\epsilon$ is the smallest relevant wavelength, $0<\epsilon\ll1$. Our main result is a new $L^{2}$-stability estimate for the reconstruction of such bandlimited multiscale functions $f^{\epsilon}$ from periodic nonuniform samples. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the close relation between and sampling strategies developed in information theory and computational grids in multiscale modeling. This connection is of much interest because numerical simulations often involve discretizations by means of sampling, and meshes are routinely designed using tools from information theory. The proposed sampling sets are of optimal rate according to the minimal sampling requirements of Landau \cite{Landau}.