Abstract:
For one-dimensional symmetric L\'{e}vy processes, which hit every point with positive probability, we give sharp bounds for the tail function of the first hitting time of B which is either a single point or an interval. The estimates are obtained under some weak type scaling assumptions on the characteristic exponent of the process. We apply these results to prove optimal estimates of the transition density of the process killed after hitting B.

Abstract:
In basic computational physics classes, students often raise the question of how to compute a number that exceeds the numerical limit of the machine. While technique of avoiding overflow/underflow has practical application in the electrical and electronics engineering industries, it is not commonly utilized in scientific computing, because scientific notation is adequate in most cases. We present an undergraduate project that deals with such calculations beyond a machine's numerical limit, known as arbitrary precision arithmetic. The assignment asks students to investigate the approach of calculating the exact value of a large number beyond the floating point number precision, using the basic scientific programming language Fortran. The basic concept is to utilize arrays to decompose the number and allocate finite memory. Examples of the successive multiplication of even number and the multiplication and division of two overflowing floats are presented. The multiple precision scheme has been applied to hardware and firmware design for digital signal processing (DSP) systems, and is gaining importance to scientific computing. Such basic arithmetic operations can be integrated to solve advanced mathematical problems to almost arbitrarily-high precision that is limited by the memory of the host machine.

Abstract:
Quantum walks play an important role in the area of quantum algorithms. Many interesting problems can be reduced to searching marked states in a quantum Markov chain. In this context, the notion of quantum hitting time is very important, because it quantifies the running time of the algorithms. Markov chain-based algorithms are probabilistic, therefore the calculation of the success probability is also required in the analysis of the computational complexity. Using Szegedy's definition of quantum hitting time, which is a natural extension of the definition of the classical hitting time, we present analytical expressions for the hitting time and success probability of the quantum walk on the complete graph.

Abstract:
Simple floating point operations like addition or multiplication on normalized floating point values can be computed by current AMD and Intel processors in three to five cycles. This is different for denormalized numbers, which appear when an underflow occurs and the value can no longer be represented as a normalized floating-point value. Here the costs are about two magnitudes higher.

Abstract:
Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that “hitting is contagious”. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates’ batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups () were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter’s team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean for the treatment group was found to be to percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased points), while the batting heat index introduced here was observed to increase by points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a “statistical contagion effect”. Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

Abstract:
Hitting times for discrete quantum walks on graphs give an average time before the walk reaches an ending condition. To be analogous to the hitting time for a classical walk, the quantum hitting time must involve repeated measurements as well as unitary evolution. We derive an expression for hitting time using superoperators, and numerically evaluate it for the discrete walk on the hypercube. The values found are compared to other analogues of hitting time suggested in earlier work. The dependence of hitting times on the type of unitary ``coin'' is examined, and we give an example of an initial state and coin which gives an infinite hitting time for a quantum walk. Such infinite hitting times require destructive interference, and are not observed classically. Finally, we look at distortions of the hypercube, and observe that a loss of symmetry in the hypercube increases the hitting time. Symmetry seems to play an important role in both dramatic speed-ups and slow-downs of quantum walks.

Abstract:
We establish a general formula for the Laplace transform of the hitting times of a Gaussian process. Some consequences are derived, and particular cases like the fractional Brownian motion are discussed.

Abstract:
Hitting times are the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given starting vertex. The hitting time for a classical random walk on a connected graph will always be finite. We show that, by contrast, quantum walks can have infinite hitting times for some initial states. We seek criteria to determine if a given walk on a graph will have infinite hitting times, and find a sufficient condition, which for discrete time quantum walks is that the degeneracy of the evolution operator be greater than the degree of the graph. The set of initial states which give an infinite hitting time form a subspace. The phenomenon of infinite hitting times is in general a consequence of the symmetry of the graph and its automorphism group. Using the irreducible representations of the automorphism group, we derive conditions such that quantum walks defined on this graph must have infinite hitting times for some initial states. In the case of the discrete walk, if this condition is satisfied the walk will have infinite hitting times for any choice of a coin operator, and we give a class of graphs with infinite hitting times for any choice of coin. Hitting times are not very well-defined for continuous time quantum walks, but we show that the idea of infinite hitting-time walks naturally extends to the continuous time case as well.

Abstract:
Equivalence of the spectral gap, exponential integrability of hitting times and Lyapunov conditions are well known. We give here the correspondance (with quantitative results) for reversible diffusion processes. As a consequence, we generalize results of Bobkov in the one dimensional case on the value of the Poincar\'e constant for logconcave measures to superlinear potentials. Finally, we study various functional inequalities under different hitting times integrability conditions (polynomial, ...). In particular, in the one dimensional case, ultracontractivity is equivalent to a bounded Lyapunov condition.

Abstract:
Under very general conditions the hitting time of a set by a stochastic process is a stopping time. We give a new simple proof of this fact. The section theorems foroptional and predictable sets are easy corollaries of the proof.