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Building Automation Networks for Smart Grids  [PDF]
Peizhong Yi,Abiodun Iwayemi,Chi Zhou
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/926363
Abstract: Smart grid, as an intelligent power generation, distribution, and control system, needs various communication systems to meet its requirements. The ability to communicate seamlessly across multiple networks and domains is an open issue which is yet to be adequately addressed in smart grid architectures. In this paper, we present a framework for end-to-end interoperability in home and building area networks within smart grids. 6LoWPAN and the compact application protocol are utilized to facilitate the use of IPv6 and Zigbee application profiles such as Zigbee smart energy for network and application layer interoperability, respectively. A differential service medium access control scheme enables end-to-end connectivity between 802.15.4 and IP networks while providing quality of service guarantees for Zigbee traffic over Wi-Fi. We also address several issues including interference mitigation, load scheduling, and security and propose solutions to them. 1. Introduction The smart grid is an intelligent power generation, distribution, and control system. It enhances today’s power grid with intelligence, bidirectional communication capabilities and energy flows [1]. These enhancements address the efficiency, stability, and flexibility issues that plague the grid at present. In order to achieve its promised potential, the smart grid must facilitate services including the wide-scale integration of renewable energy sources, provision of real-time pricing information to consumers, demand response programs involving residential and commercial customers, and rapid outage detection. All these tasks demand the collection and analysis of real-time data. This data is then used to control electrical loads and perform demand response. In order to obtain the full benefit of smart grids, their communication infrastructure must support device control and data exchanges between various domains which comprise the smart grid. The smart grid must be allied with smart consumption in order to achieve optimum power system efficiency. This necessitates the integration of smart buildings, appliances, and consumers in order to reduce energy consumption while satisfying occupant comfort. Building automation systems (BASs) already provide this intelligence, enabling computerized measurement, control and management of heating, ventilation, air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and security systems to enhance energy efficiency, reduce costs, and improve user comfort. Buildings consume 29% of all electricity generated in the United States [2]; therefore, the ability of BASs to communicate
Intelligent Load Management Scheme for a Residential Community in Smart Grids Network Using Fair Emergency Demand Response Programs  [PDF]
Muhammad Ali, Z.A. Zaidi, Qamar Zia, Kamal Haider, Amjad Ullah, Muhammad Asif
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.45044
Abstract: In the framework of liberalized deregulated electricity market, dynamic competitive environment exists between wholesale and retail dealers for energy supplying and management. Smart Grids topology in form of energy management has forced power supplying agencies to become globally competitive. Demand Response (DR) Programs in context with smart energy network have influenced prosumers and consumers towards it. In this paper Fair Emergency Demand Response Program (FEDRP) is integrated for managing the loads intelligently by using the platform of Smart Grids for Residential Setup. The paper also provides detailed modelling and analysis of respective demands of residential consumers in relation with economic load model for FEDRP. Due to increased customer’s partaking in this program the load on the utility is reduced and managed intelligently during emergency hours by providing fair and attractive incentives to residential clients, thus shifting peak load to off peak hours. The numerical and graphical results are matched for intelligent load management scenario.
FEDRP Based Model Implementation of Intelligent Energy Management Scheme for a Residential Community in Smart Grids Network  [PDF]
Qamar Zia, Muhammad Ali, Zulfikar Ahmad Zaidi, Chaudhry Arshad, Amjad Ullah, Hafeez ur Rahman, Muhammad Ahsan Shahzad, Beenish Taj
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.34045
Abstract: In the framework of liberalized deregulated electricity market, dynamic competitive environment exists between wholesale and retail dealers for energy supplying and management. Smart Grids topology in form of energy management has forced power supplying agencies to become globally competitive. Demand Response (DR) Programs in context with smart energy network have influenced prosumers and consumers towards it. In this paper Fair Emergency Demand Response Program (FEDRP) is integrated for managing the loads intelligently by using the platform of Smart Grids for Residential Setup. The paper also provides detailed modeling and analysis of respective demands of residential consumers in relation with economic load model for FEDRP. Due to increased customer’s partaking in this program the load on the utility is reduced and managed intelligently during emergency hours by providing fair and attractive incentives to residential clients, thus shifting peak load to off peak hours. The numerical and graphical results are matched for intelligent energy management scenario.
Customer Engagement Plans for Peak Load Reduction in Residential Smart Grids  [PDF]
Naveed Ul Hassan,Yawar Ismail Khalid,Chau Yuen,Wayes Tushar
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose and study the effectiveness of customer engagement plans that clearly specify the amount of intervention in customer's load settings by the grid operator for peak load reduction. We suggest two different types of plans, including Constant Deviation Plans (CDPs) and Proportional Deviation Plans (PDPs). We define an adjustable reference temperature for both CDPs and PDPs to limit the output temperature of each thermostat load and to control the number of devices eligible to participate in Demand Response Program (DRP). We model thermostat loads as power throttling devices and design algorithms to evaluate the impact of power throttling states and plan parameters on peak load reduction. Based on the simulation results, we recommend PDPs to the customers of a residential community with variable thermostat set point preferences, while CDPs are suitable for customers with similar thermostat set point preferences. If thermostat loads have multiple power throttling states, customer engagement plans with less temperature deviations from thermostat set points are recommended. Contrary to classical ON/OFF control, higher temperature deviations are required to achieve similar amount of peak load reduction. Several other interesting tradeoffs and useful guidelines for designing mutually beneficial incentives for both the grid operator and customers can also be identified.
An Efficient Impedance Matching Technique for Improving Narrowband Power Line Communication in Residential Smart Grids
SNEHASIS DESPANDE, I. V. PRASANNA, S K PANDA
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Power line communication is a cost-effective, facile and reliable tool for the current electrical distribution grid and will play a significant role towards realizing smart grids in future. Low voltage electrical networks provide a harsh environment for data communication. Significant attenuation, noise, interferences, multipath reflections and overall unpredictable and time varying access impedance are some of the major problems faced by power line communication in its current state. The demand for smart greenhouses is rapidly increasing to meet the energy demand in future. So the need of an effective communication link between main grid and the residential grid is inevitable. This paper aims at removing one of the big hindrances in achieving power line communication, which is impedance mismatch between the communication system side and load side. Although there are many impedance matching techniques, a thorough comparison of all major techniques is required to find out which one is technically efficient and cost effective. It explains the performance variation in different system areas and therefore helps in providing better perceptive of power line communication in real applications.
Insights from Stakeholders of Five Residential Smart Grid Pilot Projects in the Netherlands  [PDF]
Uchechi Obinna, Peter Joore, Linda Wauben, Angele Reinders
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2016.71001
Abstract: This paper presents insights and perceptions of stakeholders involved in the development and implementation of residential smart grid pilot projects in the Netherlands, adding to the limited information that is currently available in this area, while expectations about the potential benefits of smart grids are high. The main research questions of this study are: (1) How have some typical residential smart grid pilots in the Netherlands been set up? (2) Which stakeholders are involved in these pilots in the year 2014? (3) What are their views and perceptions with regards to the development and performance of residential smart grids? and (4) What do these stakeholders think about the products and services that may support an active participation of end-users in a smart energy home? To obtain information, we evaluated five residential smart grid pilot projects where smart energy products and services have been implemented. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine stakeholders involved in these projects. The Strategic Niche management framework was used to identify the present state of development and implementation of smart grid pilots. Our study shows that in the Netherlands residential smart grid pilots have been set-up and funded mainly by the government and grid operators. Other stakeholders involved include energy suppliers, end-users (as an energy cooperative or individual household), product and service suppliers, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) companies, and knowledge institutes. Currently a technology-push approach exists which barely includes an integrated approach towards smart grids products and services development. To the opinion of the interviewed stakeholders, current products and services offered in residential smart grid pilots are functionally attractive, but often too technically complex for the understanding of end-users. Hence, the general view held by respondents is that end-users should be the starting point in the development of smart grid products and services at the residential areas.
Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads  [PDF]
G. Tsagarakis,A. J. Collin,A. E. Kiprakis
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1515/ijeeps-2013-0078
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.
Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning  [PDF]
Alberto Sendin,I?igo Berganza,Aitor Arzuaga,Xabier Osorio,Iker Urrutia,Pablo Angueira
Energies , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/en6010539
Abstract: Low Voltage (LV) electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC) and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.
Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources  [cached]
Soares A.,Gomes A.,Antunes C. H.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20123305005
Abstract: The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.
Distributed Power Loss Minimization in Residential Micro Grids: a Communications Perspective  [PDF]
Riccardo Bonetto,Stefano Tomasin,Michele Rossi
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The constantly increasing number of power generation devices based on renewables is calling for a transition from the centralized control of electrical distribution grids to a distributed control scenario. In this context, distributed generators (DGs) are exploited to achieve other objectives beyond supporting loads, such as the minimization of the power losses along the distribution lines. The aim of this work is that of designing a full-fledged system that extends existing state of the art algorithms for the distributed minimization of power losses. We take into account practical aspects such as the design of a communication and coordination protocol that is resilient to link failures and manages channel access, message delivery and DG coordination. Thus, we analyze the performance of the resulting optimization and communication scheme in terms of power loss reduction, reduction of aggregate power demand, convergence rate and resilience to communication link failures. After that, we discuss the results of a thorough simulation campaign, obtained using topologies generated through a statistical approach that has been validated in previous research, by also assessing the performance deviation with respect to localized schemes, where the DGs are operated independently. Our results reveal that the convergence and stability performance of the selected algorithms vary greatly. However, configurations exist for which convergence is possible within five to ten communication steps and, when just 30% of the nodes are DGs, the aggregate power demand is roughly halved. Also, some of the considered approaches are quite robust against link failures as they still provide gains with respect to the localized solutions for failure rates as high as 50%.
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