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Information Resources Column: "Securing Your PC and Protecting Your Privacy
Schloman, B
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2004,
Abstract: Working in a networked information environment brings new opportunities for getting and sharing information. Regrettably, these benefits of the Internet are challenged by forces that would interfere to satisfy their own profit or malevolent motives. Your networked computer can be infected by viruses, worms, or Trojan horses or infiltrated by spyware, adware, or pop-ups. Without being aware of the dangers and taking precautionary steps, your PC is susceptible to being compromised and your privacy invaded. This column will highlight some of the dangers and offer basic steps for securing your computer and protecting your privacy.
Intrusions into Privacy in Video Chat Environments: Attacks and Countermeasures  [PDF]
Xinyu Xing,Jianxun Dang,Richard Han,Xue Liu,Shivakant Mishra
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Video chat systems such as Chatroulette have become increasingly popular as a way to meet and converse one-on-one via video and audio with other users online in an open and interactive manner. At the same time, security and privacy concerns inherent in such communication have been little explored. This paper presents one of the first investigations of the privacy threats found in such video chat systems, identifying three such threats, namely de-anonymization attacks, phishing attacks, and man-in-the-middle attacks. The paper further describes countermeasures against each of these attacks.
Composition Attacks and Auxiliary Information in Data Privacy  [PDF]
Srivatsava Ranjit Ganta,Shiva Prasad Kasiviswanathan,Adam Smith
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Privacy is an increasingly important aspect of data publishing. Reasoning about privacy, however, is fraught with pitfalls. One of the most significant is the auxiliary information (also called external knowledge, background knowledge, or side information) that an adversary gleans from other channels such as the web, public records, or domain knowledge. This paper explores how one can reason about privacy in the face of rich, realistic sources of auxiliary information. Specifically, we investigate the effectiveness of current anonymization schemes in preserving privacy when multiple organizations independently release anonymized data about overlapping populations. 1. We investigate composition attacks, in which an adversary uses independent anonymized releases to breach privacy. We explain why recently proposed models of limited auxiliary information fail to capture composition attacks. Our experiments demonstrate that even a simple instance of a composition attack can breach privacy in practice, for a large class of currently proposed techniques. The class includes k-anonymity and several recent variants. 2. On a more positive note, certain randomization-based notions of privacy (such as differential privacy) provably resist composition attacks and, in fact, the use of arbitrary side information. This resistance enables stand-alone design of anonymization schemes, without the need for explicitly keeping track of other releases. We provide a precise formulation of this property, and prove that an important class of relaxations of differential privacy also satisfy the property. This significantly enlarges the class of protocols known to enable modular design.
Managing User Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing Applications
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Ubiquitous computing applications occupied more research areas like medicine, banking and reporting applications that require user privacy. In this paper, privacy is detected as a set of parameters encapsulated in composite data entities called privons, through which, aim at infusing privacy into precision. The proposed scheme through real interaction in implementation of privons. The work implements as a privacy infusion into smart work place. Smart work place is designed for business. It allows managing an unlimited number of projects within an organization. Moreover, it offers a high level of flexibility when managing users, who have different access rights depending on the project. Access rights range from the basic read-only to the comprehensive full control level. We even extended this flexibility to projects: each project can have and individual structure and management style. The concept of privons as composite entity is introduced; comprising the privacy levels, date and services, developed for handling privacy for privacy management toreduce obtrusiveness privons is generated for all sessions that invoke transfer of information’s through these entities.
RAPTOR: Routing Attacks on Privacy in Tor  [PDF]
Yixin Sun,Anne Edmundson,Laurent Vanbever,Oscar Li,Jennifer Rexford,Mung Chiang,Prateek Mittal
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The Tor network is a widely used system for anonymous communication. However, Tor is known to be vulnerable to attackers who can observe traffic at both ends of the communication path. In this paper, we show that prior attacks are just the tip of the iceberg. We present a suite of new attacks, called Raptor, that can be launched by Autonomous Systems (ASes) to compromise user anonymity. First, AS-level adversaries can exploit the asymmetric nature of Internet routing to increase the chance of observing at least one direction of user traffic at both ends of the communication. Second, AS-level adversaries can exploit natural churn in Internet routing to lie on the BGP paths for more users over time. Third, strategic adversaries can manipulate Internet routing via BGP hijacks (to discover the users using specific Tor guard nodes) and interceptions (to perform traffic analysis). We demonstrate the feasibility of Raptor attacks by analyzing historical BGP data and Traceroute data as well as performing real-world attacks on the live Tor network, while ensuring that we do not harm real users. In addition, we outline the design of two monitoring frameworks to counter these attacks: BGP monitoring to detect control-plane attacks, and Traceroute monitoring to detect data-plane anomalies. Overall, our work motivates the design of anonymity systems that are aware of the dynamics of Internet routing.
OnionBots: Subverting Privacy Infrastructure for Cyber Attacks  [PDF]
Amirali Sanatinia,Guevara Noubir
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Over the last decade botnets survived by adopting a sequence of increasingly sophisticated strategies to evade detection and take overs, and to monetize their infrastructure. At the same time, the success of privacy infrastructures such as Tor opened the door to illegal activities, including botnets, ransomware, and a marketplace for drugs and contraband. We contend that the next waves of botnets will extensively subvert privacy infrastructure and cryptographic mechanisms. In this work we propose to preemptively investigate the design and mitigation of such botnets. We first, introduce OnionBots, what we believe will be the next generation of resilient, stealthy botnets. OnionBots use privacy infrastructures for cyber attacks by completely decoupling their operation from the infected host IP address and by carrying traffic that does not leak information about its source, destination, and nature. Such bots live symbiotically within the privacy infrastructures to evade detection, measurement, scale estimation, observation, and in general all IP-based current mitigation techniques. Furthermore, we show that with an adequate self-healing network maintenance scheme, that is simple to implement, OnionBots achieve a low diameter and a low degree and are robust to partitioning under node deletions. We developed a mitigation technique, called SOAP, that neutralizes the nodes of the basic OnionBots. We also outline and discuss a set of techniques that can enable subsequent waves of Super OnionBots. In light of the potential of such botnets, we believe that the research community should proactively develop detection and mitigation methods to thwart OnionBots, potentially making adjustments to privacy infrastructure.
Managing your eye unit's supplies
RD Thulsiraj
Community Eye Health Journal , 2011,
Abstract: In order to deliver eye care, many resources have to be in place at the right time: your patients, your staff, your facilities, your equipment, and your supplies. In this article, we focus on how you can manage your supplies to ensure that your eye service runs smoothly. These supplies, or consumables, include every little thing needed in the course of your daily work: IOLs, medicines, gloves, forms used for patient care, housekeeping supplies, and equipment spares. If any of these items become unavailable, your eye centre will be unable to provide the same high quality of services, and you may even have to turn patients away.
Hang With Your Buddies to Resist Intersection Attacks  [PDF]
David Isaac Wolinsky,Ewa Syta,Bryan Ford
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1145/2508859.2516740
Abstract: Some anonymity schemes might in principle protect users from pervasive network surveillance - but only if all messages are independent and unlinkable. Users in practice often need pseudonymity - sending messages intentionally linkable to each other but not to the sender - but pseudonymity in dynamic networks exposes users to intersection attacks. We present Buddies, the first systematic design for intersection attack resistance in practical anonymity systems. Buddies groups users dynamically into buddy sets, controlling message transmission to make buddies within a set behaviorally indistinguishable under traffic analysis. To manage the inevitable tradeoffs between anonymity guarantees and communication responsiveness, Buddies enables users to select independent attack mitigation policies for each pseudonym. Using trace-based simulations and a working prototype, we find that Buddies can guarantee non-trivial anonymity set sizes in realistic chat/microblogging scenarios, for both short-lived and long-lived pseudonyms.
Privacy Preserving Social Network Publication Against Mutual Friend Attacks  [PDF]
Chongjing Sun,Philip S. Yu,Xiangnan Kong,Yan Fu
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Publishing social network data for research purposes has raised serious concerns for individual privacy. There exist many privacy-preserving works that can deal with different attack models. In this paper, we introduce a novel privacy attack model and refer it as a mutual friend attack. In this model, the adversary can re-identify a pair of friends by using their number of mutual friends. To address this issue, we propose a new anonymity concept, called k-NMF anonymity, i.e., k-anonymity on the number of mutual friends, which ensures that there exist at least k-1 other friend pairs in the graph that share the same number of mutual friends. We devise algorithms to achieve the k-NMF anonymity while preserving the original vertex set in the sense that we allow the occasional addition but no deletion of vertices. Further we give an algorithm to ensure the k-degree anonymity in addition to the k-NMF anonymity. The experimental results on real-word datasets demonstrate that our approach can preserve the privacy and utility of social networks effectively against mutual friend attacks.
Protection of Web User’s Privacy by Securing Browser from Web Privacy Attacks  [PDF]
Sanket Baviskar,Dr. P. Santhi Thilagam
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: The Internet and World Wide Web being an essential part of everyone’s life, the users have become more conscious about their privacy. The user’s web privacy unfortunately, is not focused much by the current browsers. This paper focuses on the attacks which compromises user’s anonymity, grab user’s private data. It highlights the privacy attacks such as history sniffing, web beacons, browser fingerprinting. We focus on the protection of user’s information which is transferred over the network to the web server without the users consent rather than stealing attempts which fools the user and trap them to install malicious software which perform the theft, using social engineering techniques. A generic algorithm has been proposed in this paper which will stop the attacker from violating privacy. We have proposed a secure way of interaction between browser objects through browser API’S and the JavaScript. We developed an add-on which implements the proposed solution.
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