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Towards an Abstract Domain for Resource Analysis of Logic Programs Using Sized Types  [PDF]
Alejandro Serrano,Pedro López-García,Manuel Hermenegildo
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We present a novel general resource analysis for logic programs based on sized types.Sized types are representations that incorporate structural (shape) information and allow expressing both lower and upper bounds on the size of a set of terms and their subterms at any position and depth. They also allow relating the sizes of terms and subterms occurring at different argument positions in logic predicates. Using these sized types, the resource analysis can infer both lower and upper bounds on the resources used by all the procedures in a program as functions on input term (and subterm) sizes, overcoming limitations of existing analyses and enhancing their precision. Our new resource analysis has been developed within the abstract interpretation framework, as an extension of the sized types abstract domain, and has been integrated into the Ciao preprocessor, CiaoPP. The abstract domain operations are integrated with the setting up and solving of recurrence equations for both, inferring size and resource usage functions. We show that the analysis is an improvement over the previous resource analysis present in CiaoPP and compares well in power to state of the art systems.
Abstract Interpretation of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programs  [PDF]
Moreno Falaschi,Carlos Olarte,Catuscia Palamidessi
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/S1471068413000641
Abstract: Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming (tcc) is a declarative model for concurrency offering a logic for specifying reactive systems, i.e. systems that continuously interact with the environment. The universal tcc formalism (utcc) is an extension of tcc with the ability to express mobility. Here mobility is understood as communication of private names as typically done for mobile systems and security protocols. In this paper we consider the denotational semantics for tcc, and we extend it to a "collecting" semantics for utcc based on closure operators over sequences of constraints. Relying on this semantics, we formalize a general framework for data flow analyses of tcc and utcc programs by abstract interpretation techniques. The concrete and abstract semantics we propose are compositional, thus allowing us to reduce the complexity of data flow analyses. We show that our method is sound and parametric with respect to the abstract domain. Thus, different analyses can be performed by instantiating the framework. We illustrate how it is possible to reuse abstract domains previously defined for logic programming to perform, for instance, a groundness analysis for tcc programs. We show the applicability of this analysis in the context of reactive systems. Furthermore, we make also use of the abstract semantics to exhibit a secrecy flaw in a security protocol. We also show how it is possible to make an analysis which may show that tcc programs are suspension free. This can be useful for several purposes, such as for optimizing compilation or for debugging.
Verifying Safety-Critical Timing and Memory-Usage Properties of Embedded Software by Abstract Interpretation  [PDF]
Reinhold Heckmann,Christian Ferdinand
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: Static program analysis by abstract interpretation is an efficient method to determine properties of embedded software. One example is value analysis, which determines the values stored in the processor registers. Its results are used as input to more advanced analyses, which ultimately yield information about the stack usage and the timing behavior of embedded software.
Abstract Interpretation Based Verification of Prolog Programs
基于抽象解释的Prolog程序验证技术研究

ZHAO Ling-zhong,GU Tian-long,CAI Guo-yong,QIAN Jun-yan,
赵岭忠
,古天龙,蔡国永,钱俊彦

计算机科学 , 2008,
Abstract: Abstract interpretation is a general theory of semantics approximation,which has been widely used in the verification of computer programs.Existing abstract interpretation based verification methods for logic programs do not deal with the properties associated with the program points.Based on our previous work on Prolog semantics,an abstract interpretation based verification method for Prolog programs is proposed in this paper,which makes use of a denotational semantics for Prolog that contains path informa...
Automating Abstract Interpretation of Abstract Machines  [PDF]
James Ian Johnson
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Static program analysis is a valuable tool for any programming language that people write programs in. The prevalence of scripting languages in the world suggests programming language interpreters are relatively easy to write. Users of these languages lament their inability to analyze their code, therefore programming language analyzers are not easy to write. This thesis investigates a systematic method of creating abstract interpreters from traditional interpreters, called Abstracting Abstract Machines. Abstract interpreters are difficult to develop due to technical, theoretical, and pragmatic problems. Technical problems include engineering data structures and algorithms. I show that modest and simple changes to the mathematical presentation of abstract machines result in 1000 times better running time - just seconds for moderately sized programs. In the theoretical realm, abstraction can make correctness difficult to ascertain. I provide proof techniques for proving the correctness of regular, pushdown, and stack-inspecting pushdown models of abstract computation by leaving computational power to an external factor: allocation. Even if we don't trust the proof, we can run models concretely against test suites to better trust them. In the pragmatic realm, I show that the systematic process of abstracting abstract machines is automatable. I develop a meta-language for expressing abstract machines similar to other semantics engineering languages. The language's special feature is that it provides an interface to abstract allocation. The semantics guarantees that if allocation is finite, then the semantics is a sound and computable approximation of the concrete semantics.
Logic programs with monotone abstract constraint atoms  [PDF]
V. W. Marek,I. Niemela,M. Truszczynski]
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: We introduce and study logic programs whose clauses are built out of monotone constraint atoms. We show that the operational concept of the one-step provability operator generalizes to programs with monotone constraint atoms, but the generalization involves nondeterminism. Our main results demonstrate that our formalism is a common generalization of (1) normal logic programming with its semantics of models, supported models and stable models, (2) logic programming with weight atoms (lparse programs) with the semantics of stable models, as defined by Niemela, Simons and Soininen, and (3) of disjunctive logic programming with the possible-model semantics of Sakama and Inoue.
Abstract interpretation as anti-refinement  [PDF]
Arnaud Spiwack
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: This article shows a correspondence between abstract interpretation of imperative programs and the refinement calculus: in the refinement calculus, an abstract interpretation of a program is a specification which is a function. This correspondence can be used to guide the design of mechanically verified static analyses, keeping the correctness proof well separated from the heuristic parts of the algorithms.
Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language  [PDF]
Mads Rosendahl
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.4204/EPTCS.129.7
Abstract: In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.
Answer Sets for Logic Programs with Arbitrary Abstract Constraint Atoms  [PDF]
E. Pontelli,T. C. Son,P. H. Tu
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1613/jair.2171
Abstract: In this paper, we present two alternative approaches to defining answer sets for logic programs with arbitrary types of abstract constraint atoms (c-atoms). These approaches generalize the fixpoint-based and the level mapping based answer set semantics of normal logic programs to the case of logic programs with arbitrary types of c-atoms. The results are four different answer set definitions which are equivalent when applied to normal logic programs. The standard fixpoint-based semantics of logic programs is generalized in two directions, called answer set by reduct and answer set by complement. These definitions, which differ from each other in the treatment of negation-as-failure (naf) atoms, make use of an immediate consequence operator to perform answer set checking, whose definition relies on the notion of conditional satisfaction of c-atoms w.r.t. a pair of interpretations. The other two definitions, called strongly and weakly well-supported models, are generalizations of the notion of well-supported models of normal logic programs to the case of programs with c-atoms. As for the case of fixpoint-based semantics, the difference between these two definitions is rooted in the treatment of naf atoms. We prove that answer sets by reduct (resp. by complement) are equivalent to weakly (resp. strongly) well-supported models of a program, thus generalizing the theorem on the correspondence between stable models and well-supported models of a normal logic program to the class of programs with c-atoms. We show that the newly defined semantics coincide with previously introduced semantics for logic programs with monotone c-atoms, and they extend the original answer set semantics of normal logic programs. We also study some properties of answer sets of programs with c-atoms, and relate our definitions to several semantics for logic programs with aggregates presented in the literature.
Reachability-based Acyclicity Analysis by Abstract Interpretation  [PDF]
Samir Genaim,Damiano Zanardini
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.tcs.2012.12.018
Abstract: In programming languages with dynamic use of memory, such as Java, knowing that a reference variable x points to an acyclic data structure is valuable for the analysis of termination and resource usage (e.g., execution time or memory consumption). For instance, this information guarantees that the depth of the data structure to which x points is greater than the depth of the data structure pointed to by x.f for any field f of x. This, in turn, allows bounding the number of iterations of a loop which traverses the structure by its depth, which is essential in order to prove the termination or infer the resource usage of the loop. The present paper provides an Abstract-Interpretation-based formalization of a static analysis for inferring acyclicity, which works on the reduced product of two abstract domains: reachability, which models the property that the location pointed to by a variable w can be reached by dereferencing another variable v (in this case, v is said to reach w); and cyclicity, modeling the property that v can point to a cyclic data structure. The analysis is proven to be sound and optimal with respect to the chosen abstraction.
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