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Rich-club vs rich-multipolarization phenomena in weighted networks  [PDF]
M. Angeles Serrano
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.026101
Abstract: Large scale hierarchies characterize complex networks in different domains. Elements at their top, usually the most central or influential, may show multipolarization or tend to club forming tightly interconnected communities. The rich-club phenomenon quantified this tendency based on unweighted network representations. Here, we define this metric for weighted networks and discuss the appropriate normalization which preserves nodes' strengths and discounts structural strength-strength correlations if present. We find that in some real networks the results given by the weighted rich-club coefficient can be in sharp contrast to the ones in the unweighted approach. We also discuss that the scanning of the weighted subgraphs formed by the high-strength hubs is able to unveil features contrary to the average: the formation of local alliances in rich-multipolarized environments, or a lack of cohesion even in the presence of rich-club ordering. Beyond structure, this analysis matters for understanding correctly functionalities and dynamical processes relying on hub interconnectedness.
P?nar Gürel,Y. Aytül Da?l? Ekmek?i,?lhan Kü?ükkaplan
Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: In sports industry intangible sources such as fan loyalty, the talent players, the experience of the management team become more and more important in creating team value. There is a growing awareness that intellectual capital is a key asset for clubs’ financial success. Therefore this study is a pioneering effort todetermine and compare the intellectual capital of Turkish First Division football clubs whose shares are publicly traded at the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). In the analysis part of this study, determining and comparing the intellectual capital ratios of this publicly traded clubs has been aimed. To this aim the concept of intellectual capital was analyzed with the Value Added Intellectual Capital (VAIC)Method. The findings indicate that Galatasaray Sport Club uses its intellectual capital more efficiently. Higher intellectual capital value means higher market share for football clubs. Therefore from sports management perspective the major football clubs should develop their intellectual capitals.
On the rich-club effect in dense and weighted networks  [PDF]
Vinko Zlatic,Ginestra Bianconi,Albert Diaz-Guilera,Diego Garlaschelli,Francesco Rao,Guido Caldarelli
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2009-00007-9
Abstract: For many complex networks present in nature only a single instance, usually of large size, is available. Any measurement made on this single instance cannot be repeated on different realizations. In order to detect significant patterns in a real--world network it is therefore crucial to compare the measured results with a null model counterpart. Here we focus on dense and weighted networks, proposing a suitable null model and studying the behaviour of the degree correlations as measured by the rich-club coefficient. Our method solves an existing problem with the randomization of dense unweighted graphs, and at the same time represents a generalization of the rich--club coefficient to weighted networks which is complementary to other recently proposed ones.
Prominence and control: The weighted rich-club effect  [PDF]
Tore Opsahl,Vittoria Colizza,Pietro Panzarasa,Jose J. Ramasco
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.168702
Abstract: Complex systems are often characterized by large-scale hierarchical organizations. Whether the prominent elements, at the top of the hierarchy, share and control resources or avoid one another lies at the heart of a system's global organization and functioning. Inspired by network perspectives, we propose a new general framework for studying the tendency of prominent elements to form clubs with exclusive control over the majority of a system's resources. We explore associations between prominence and control in the fields of transportation, scientific collaboration, and online communication.
WESD - Weighted Spectral Distance for Measuring Shape Dissimilarity  [PDF]
Ender Konukoglu,Ben Glocker,Antonio Criminisi,Kilian M. Pohl
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This article presents a new distance for measuring shape dissimilarity between objects. Recent publications introduced the use of eigenvalues of the Laplace operator as compact shape descriptors. Here, we revisit the eigenvalues to define a proper distance, called Weighted Spectral Distance (WESD), for quantifying shape dissimilarity. The definition of WESD is derived through analysing the heat-trace. This analysis provides the proposed distance an intuitive meaning and mathematically links it to the intrinsic geometry of objects. We analyse the resulting distance definition, present and prove its important theoretical properties. Some of these properties include: i) WESD is defined over the entire sequence of eigenvalues yet it is guaranteed to converge, ii) it is a pseudometric, iii) it is accurately approximated with a finite number of eigenvalues, and iv) it can be mapped to the [0,1) interval. Lastly, experiments conducted on synthetic and real objects are presented. These experiments highlight the practical benefits of WESD for applications in vision and medical image analysis.
Double Clubs  [PDF]
Richard Garner
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We develop a theory of double clubs which extends Kelly's theory of clubs to the pseudo double categories of Pare and Grandis. We then show that the club for symmetric strict monoidal categories on Cat extends to a `double club' on the pseudo double category of `categories, functors, profunctors and transformations'.
Measuring economic inequality and risk: a unifying approach based on personal gambles, societal preferences and references  [PDF]
Francesca Greselin,Ricardas Zitikis
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: The underlying idea behind the construction of indices of economic inequality is based on measuring deviations of various portions of low incomes from certain references or benchmarks, that could be point measures like population mean or median, or curves like the hypotenuse of the right triangle where every Lorenz curve falls into. In this paper we argue that by appropriately choosing population-based references, called societal references, and distributions of personal positions, called gambles, which are random, we can meaningfully unify classical and contemporary indices of economic inequality, as well as various measures of risk. To illustrate the herein proposed approach, we put forward and explore a risk measure that takes into account the relativity of large risks with respect to small ones.
A Unifying Tool for Bounding the Quality of Non-Cooperative Solutions in Weighted Congestion Games  [PDF]
Vittorio Bilò
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: We present a general technique, based on a primal-dual formulation, for analyzing the quality of self-emerging solutions in weighted congestion games. With respect to traditional combinatorial approaches, the primal-dual schema has at least three advantages: first, it provides an analytic tool which can always be used to prove tight upper bounds for all the cases in which we are able to characterize exactly the polyhedron of the solutions under analysis; secondly, in each such a case the complementary slackness conditions give us an hint on how to construct matching lower bounding instances; thirdly, proofs become simpler and easy to check. For the sake of exposition, we first apply our technique to the problems of bounding the prices of anarchy and stability of exact and approximate pure Nash equilibria, as well as the approximation ratio of the solutions achieved after a one-round walk starting from the empty strategy profile, in the case of affine latency functions and we show how all the known upper bounds for these measures (and some of their generalizations) can be easily reobtained under a unified approach. Then, we use the technique to attack the more challenging setting of polynomial latency functions. In particular, we obtain the first known upper bounds on the price of stability of pure Nash equilibria and on the approximation ratio of the solutions achieved after a one-round walk starting from the empty strategy profile for unweighted players in the cases of quadratic and cubic latency functions. We believe that our technique, thanks to its versatility, may prove to be a powerful tool also in several other applications.
"Motorcycle Clubs in Britain During the Interwar Period, 1919 – 1939: Their Social and Cultural Importance"  [cached]
Christopher Thomas Potter
International Journal of Motorcycle Studies , 2005,
Abstract: Motorcycle clubs were and remain an important part of the motorcycling scene, primarily for their unifying aspects, as a means of indulging in social and sporting functions, and as forums for the interchange of ideas regarding technical problems. This essay explores the phenomenon of clubs using the primary source of contemporary technical journals such as The Motor Cycle and Motor Cycling, and the secondary source of the few related modern texts on the social and cultural aspects of motoring. It goes into detail regarding club activities, the usefulness of such clubs for the individual motorcyclist, and shows the increasing need to become politically aware in the light of government legislation. The relationship between clubs and their governing body, the Auto Cycle Union, is explored, as is their influence on the industry. The overall picture is of a thriving pastime, socially acceptable to the majority and undertaken by an enthusiastic cross-section of society.
Measuring the masses of the charged hadrons using a RICH as a precision velocity spectrometer  [PDF]
Peter S. Cooper,Jurgen Engelfried
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.09.175
Abstract: The Selex experiment measured several billion charged hadron tracks with a high precision magnetic momentum spectrometer and high precision RICH velocity spectrometer. We have analyzed these data to simultaneously measure the masses of all the long lived charged hadrons and anti-hadrons from the pi to the Omega using the same detector and technique. The statistical precision achievable with this data sample is more than adequate for 0.1% mass measurements We have used these measurements to develop and understand the systematic effects of a RICH as a precision velocity spectrometer with the goal of measuring 10 masses with precision ranging from 100 KeV for the lightest to 1000 KeV for the heaviest. This requires controlling the radius measurement of RICH rings to the ~10^{-4} level. Progress in the mass measurements and the required RICH analysis techniques developed are discussed.
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