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Characteristics and Techniques of Geophysical Exploration in Search for Groundwater in Ordos Cretaceous Basin
鄂尔多斯白垩系盆地地下水地球物理勘查特点和技术

WU Yi,
武毅

地球学报 , 2003,
Abstract: Stratigraphic distribution and groundwater quality are two key problems which need to be solved in the geophysical prospecting for groundwater in Ordos Cretaceous Basin. This paper analyzes these problems and gives some exploration examples. At the same time, it is pointed out that the E h 4 electrical conductivity imaging system is useful in investigating the stratigraphic distribution and determining the water quality.
Role of Satellite Sensors in Groundwater Exploration  [PDF]
Saumitra Mukherjee
Sensors , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/s8032006
Abstract: Spatial as well as spectral resolution has a very important role to play in water resource management. It was a challenge to explore the groundwater and rainwater harvesting sites in the Aravalli Quartzite-Granite-Pegmatite Precambrian terrain of Delhi, India. Use of only panchromatic sensor data of IRS-1D satellite with 5.8-meter spatial resolution has the potential to infer lineaments and faults in this hard rock area. It is essential to identify the location of interconnected lineaments below buried pediment plains in the hard rock area for targeting sub-surface water resources. Linear Image Self Scanning sensor data of the same satellite with 23.5-meter resolution when merged with the panchromatic data has produced very good results in delineation of interconnected lineaments over buried pediment plains as vegetation anomaly. These specific locations of vegetation anomaly were detected as dark red patches in various hard rock areas of Delhi. Field investigation was carried out on these patches by resistivity and magnetic survey in parts of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), Indira Gandhi national Open University, Research and Referral Hospital and Humayuns Tomb areas. Drilling was carried out in four locations of JNU that proved to be the most potential site with ground water discharge ranging from 20,000 to 30,000 liters per hour with 2 to 4 meters draw down. Further the impact of urbanization on groundwater recharging in the terrain was studied by generating Normalized difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) map which was possible to generate by using the LISS-III sensor of IRS-1D satellite. Selection of suitable sensors has definitely a cutting edge on natural resource exploration and management including groundwater.
Role of Satellite Sensors in Groundwater Exploration
Saumitra Mukherjee
Sensors , 2008,
Abstract: Spatial as well as spectral resolution has a very important role to play in water resource management. It was a challenge to explore the groundwater and rainwater harvesting sites in the Aravalli Quartzite-Granite-Pegmatite Precambrian terrain of Delhi, India. Use of only panchromatic sensor data of IRS-1D satellite with 5.8-meter spatial resolution has the potential to infer lineaments and faults in this hard rock area. It is essential to identify the location of interconnected lineaments below buried pediment plains in the hard rock area for targeting sub-surface water resources. Linear Image Self Scanning sensor data of the same satellite with 23.5-meter resolution when merged with the panchromatic data has produced very good results in delineation of interconnected lineaments over buried pediment plains as vegetation anomaly. These specific locations of vegetation anomaly were detected as dark red patches in various hard rock areas of Delhi. Field investigation was carried out on these patches by resistivity and magnetic survey in parts of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), Indira Gandhi national Open University, Research and Referral Hospital and Humayuns Tomb areas. Drilling was carried out in four locations of JNU that proved to be the most potential site with ground water discharge ranging from 20,000 to 30,000 liters per hour with 2 to 4 meters draw down. Further the impact of urbanization on groundwater recharging in the terrain was studied by generating Normalized difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) map which was possible to generate by using the LISS-III sensor of IRS-1D satellite. Selection of suitable sensors has definitely a cutting edge on natural resource exploration and management including groundwater.
Groundwater Solution Techniques: Environmental Applications  [PDF]
Sarva Mangala PRAVEENA, Mohd Harun ABDULLAH, Ahmad Zaharin ARIS, Kawi BIDIN
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.21002
Abstract: Groundwater models provide a scientific tool for various groundwater studies which include groundwater flow, solute transport, heat transport and deformation. However, without a good understanding of a model, modeling studies are not well designed or the model does not represent the natural system which being modeled long term effects may results. Thus, this review has focused and reviewed the types of solution techniques in terms of advantages and limitations. The findings are vital to improve the model conceptualization and understanding of the uncertainty in model results. On the same hand, it acts as guide and reference to groundwater modeler, reduces the time spent in understanding the solution technique and complexity of groundwater models, as well as focus ways to address the groundwater problems and deliver modeling output more efficiently.
An Integrated Approach to Groundwater Exploration Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System  [PDF]
Nezar Hammouri, Ali El-Naqa, Mohammed Barakat
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.49081
Abstract: In this study, an integrated approach was implemented using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technique for locating promising areas for groundwater exploration. This method is based evaluating a set of hydrological, geological and topographical parameters that influence the natural occurrence of groundwater. As a result, a ground water potential map (GPM) was generated by modeling these parameters. Groundwater potential map results were classified into three classes that describe the potentiality of each cell in the study area for groundwater exploration. These classes are; high, moderate and low groundwater potential area. It was found that about 7% of the study was classified as high potential areas which were found to be concentrated in the western part of the study area. About 79% of the study was classified as moderate potential for groundwater exploration. The rest of the study area (14%) was classified as low potential areas and concentrated in northeast and southeast part of the study area. These results were verified against existing well data and field observations. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of each parameter on the overall groundwater map using the effective weight and variation index. It was found that the slope parameter was the most effective among the five used parameters in the model.
Inexpensive Geophysical Instruments Supporting Groundwater Exploration in Developing Nations  [PDF]
James A. Clark, Richard Page
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.310087
Abstract: Geophysical methods are often used to aid in exploration for safe and abundant groundwater. In particular resistivity and seismic refraction methods are helpful in determining depth to bedrock and zones of saturation in the subsurface. However the expense of these instruments ($5000 to $20,000) has resulted in their limited use in developing countries. This paper describes how to construct these devices for less than $250 each. The instruments are small, light and robust and are as useful for groundwater exploration as the commercial models for shallow aquifers (less than 35 m deep) where wells can be hand dug, augured or drilled with small portable drill rigs. Data interpretation can be accomplished quickly in the field with free software implemented on a laptop computer. A suite of geophysical instruments and software can therefore be assembled for less than $850. This paper gives the design for these instruments and essential information needed to use them. It is hoped that these inexpensive geophysical instruments can be widely distributed among drillers and aid workers in developing countries, improving the success rate of water wells.
Surgical exploration of the injured kidney: current indications and techniques
Metro, Michael J.;McAninch, Jack W.;
International braz j urol , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382003000200002
Abstract: when treating renal injuries, the goals of the urologic surgeon are preservation of maximal renal function with a minimal risk of complications. to meet these, accurate staging is essential. the combined use of clinical and radiologic findings, with intra-operative information where available, will enhance the practitioner’s ability to detect, classify, and treat renal injuries appropriately. we discuss our current approach to renal trauma and current indications and techniques for surgical exploration of the injured kidney.
Surgical exploration of the injured kidney: current indications and techniques  [cached]
Metro Michael J.,McAninch Jack W.
International braz j urol , 2003,
Abstract: When treating renal injuries, the goals of the urologic surgeon are preservation of maximal renal function with a minimal risk of complications. To meet these, accurate staging is essential. The combined use of clinical and radiologic findings, with intra-operative information where available, will enhance the practitioner’s ability to detect, classify, and treat renal injuries appropriately. We discuss our current approach to renal trauma and current indications and techniques for surgical exploration of the injured kidney.
A Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Risk and HIV Testing Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon  [PDF]
Glenn J. Wagner, Frances M. Aunon, Rachel L. Kaplan, Yashodhara Rana, Danielle Khouri, Johnny Tohme, Jacques Mokhbat
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045566
Abstract: Men who have sex with men (MSM) may account for most new HIV infections in Lebanon, yet little is known about the factors that influence sexual risk behavior and HIV testing in this population. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 MSM living in Beirut, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. Mean age of the participants was 28.4 years, and all identified as either gay (77%) or bisexual (23%). Half reported not using condoms consistently and one quarter had not been HIV-tested. Many described not using condoms with a regular partner in the context of a meaningful relationship, mutual HIV testing, and a desire to not use condoms, suggesting that trust, commitment and intimacy play a role in condom use decisions. Condoms were more likely to be used with casual partners, partners believed to be HIV-positive, and with partners met online where men found it easier to candidly discuss HIV risk. Fear of infection motivated many to get HIV tested and use condoms, but such affect also led some to avoid HIV testing in fear of disease and social stigma if found to be infected. Respondents who were very comfortable with their sexual orientation and who had disclosed their sexuality to family and parents tended to be more likely to use condoms consistently and be tested for HIV. These findings indicate that similar factors influence the condom use and HIV testing of MSM in Beirut as those observed in studies elsewhere of MSM; hence, prevention efforts in Lebanon can likely benefit from lessons learned and interventions developed in other regions, particularly for younger, gay-identified men. Further research is needed to determine how prevention efforts may need to be tailored to address the needs of men who are less integrated into or do not identify with the gay community.
Application of GIS and Remote Sensing to Groundwater Exploration in Al-Wala Basin in Jordan  [PDF]
Jawad T. Al-Bakri, Yahya Y. Al-Jahmany
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.510099
Abstract:

Exploration of groundwater in countries with scarce water resources requires the implementation of effective tools that save time and money. In this study, geographic information systems (GIS) tools and remote sensing data were used to prepare and analyze digital layers of lithology, geological structure, drainage and topography to detect the most promising sites for groundwater exploration in an arid basin in Jordan. A separate map of existing wells was intersected with the generated maps to calculate the percentage of wells in each interval of density and count of lineaments and drainage. Different GIS functions of intersection and spatial query were then applied to produce the final map for the most promising sites for groundwater exploration. The possibility of using digital classification of remote sensing data for mapping the most promising sites for groundwater exploration was also investigated by applying unsupervised classification to a Landsat ETM+ image. Results showed that spatial distribution of the most promising sites for groundwater exploration was dependent on the interrelated factors of lithology, topography and geologic structure. The most promising sites were distributed within 4% of the study area. The highest percentage of groundwater wells was within the alluvial and wadi sediments, which were accurately detected by the digitally classified ETM+. The study showed that remote sensing and GIS provided efficient tools for mapping promising sites for groundwater exploration. However, the data of groundwater wells would contribute to refining the final locations of the most promising sites.

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