Abstract:
Interactions in time-varying complex systems are often very heterogeneous at the topological level (who interacts with whom) and at the temporal level (when interactions occur and how often). While it is known that temporal heterogeneities often have strong effects on dynamical processes, e.g. the burstiness of contact sequences is associated with slower spreading dynamics, the picture is far from complete. In this paper, we show that temporal heterogeneities result in temporal sparsity} at the time scale of average inter-event times, and that temporal sparsity determines the amount of slowdown of Susceptible-Infectious (SI) spreading dynamics on temporal networks. This result is based on the analysis of several empirical temporal network data sets. An approximate solution for a simple network model confirms the association between temporal sparsity and slowdown of SI spreading dynamics. Since deterministic SI spreading always follows the fastest temporal paths, our results generalize -- paths are slower to traverse because of temporal sparsity, and therefore all dynamical processes are slower as well.

Abstract:
Diffusion of long ring polymers in a melt is much slower than the reorganization of their internal structures. While direct evidences for entanglements have not been observed in the long ring polymers unlike linear polymer melts, threading between the rings is suspected to be the main reason for slowing down of ring polymer diffusion. It is, however, difficult to define the threading configuration between two rings because the rings have no chain end. In this work, evidences for threading dynamics of ring polymers are presented by using molecular dynamics simulation and applying a novel analysis method. The simulation results are analyzed in terms of the statistics of persistence and exchange times that have proved useful in studying heterogeneous dynamics of glassy systems. We find that the threading time of ring polymer melts increases more rapidly with the degree of polymerization than that of linear polymer melts. This indicates that threaded ring polymers cannot diffuse until unthreading event occurs, which results in the slowing down of ring polymer diffusion.

Abstract:
Subdwarf B stars show chemical peculiarities that cannot be explained by diffusion theory alone. Both mass loss and turbulence have been invoked to slow down atomic diffusion in order to match observed abundances. The fact that some sdB stars show pulsations gives upper limits on the amount of mass loss and turbulent mixing allowed. Consequently, non-adiabatic asteroseismology has the potential to decide which process is responsible for the abundance anomalies. We compute for the first time seismic properties of sdB models with atomic diffusion included consistently during the stellar evolution. The diffusion equations with radiative forces are solved for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Fe and Ni. We examine the effects of various mass-loss rates and mixed surface masses on the abundances and mode stability. It is shown that the mass-loss rates needed to simulate the observed He abundances (10^{-14}<=Mdot [Msun/yr]<=10^{-13}) are not consistent with observed pulsations. We find that for pulsations to be driven the rates should be Mdot<=10^{-15} Msun/yr. On the other hand, weak turbulent mixing of the outer 10^{-6} Msun can explain the He abundance anomalies while still allowing pulsations to be driven. The origin of the turbulence remains unknown but the presence of pulsations gives tight constraints on the underlying turbulence model.

Abstract:
We present promising initial results of our adaptive multigrid solver developed for application directly to the non-Hermitian Wilson-Dirac system in 4 dimensions, as opposed to the solver developed in [1] for the corresponding normal equations. The key behind the success of this algorithm is the use of an adaptive projection onto coarse grids that preserves the near null space of the system matrix. We demonstrate that the resulting algorithm has weak dependence on the gauge coupling and exhibits extremely mild critical slowing down in the chiral limit.

Abstract:
Recent research has highlighted limitations of studying complex systems with time-varying topologies from the perspective of static, time-aggregated networks. Non-Markovian characteristics resulting from the ordering of interactions in temporal networks were identified as one important mechanism that alters causality, and affects dynamical processes. So far, an analytical explanation for this phenomenon and for the significant variations observed across different systems is missing. Here we introduce a methodology that allows to analytically predict causality-driven changes of diffusion speed in non-Markovian temporal networks. Validating our predictions in six data sets, we show that - compared to the time-aggregated network - non-Markovian characteristics can lead to both a slow-down, or speed-up of diffusion which can even outweigh the decelerating effect of community structures in the static topology. Thus, non-Markovian properties of temporal networks constitute an important additional dimension of complexity in time-varying complex systems.

Abstract:
We investigate the course of cosmic expansion in its `recent past' using the Constitution SN Ia sample (which includes CfA data at low redshifts), jointly with signatures of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the galaxy distribution and fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Earlier SN Ia data sets could not address this issue because of a paucity of data at low redshifts. Allowing the equation of state of dark energy (DE) to vary, we find that a coasting model of the universe (q_0=0) fits the data about as well as LCDM. This effect, which is most clearly seen using the recently introduced `Om' diagnostic, corresponds to an increase of Om(z) and q(z) at redshifts z \lleq 0.3. In geometrical terms, this suggests that cosmic acceleration may have already peaked and that we are currently witnessing its slowing down. The case for evolving DE strengthens if a subsample of the Constitution set consisting of SNLS+ESSENCE+CfA SN Ia data is analysed in combination with BAO+CMB using the same statistical methods. The effect we observe could correspond to DE decaying into dark matter (or something else). A toy model which mimics this process agrees well with the combined SN Ia+BAO+CMB data.

Abstract:
We investigate the critical slowing down of the topological modes using local updating algorithms in lattice 2-d CP^(N-1) models. We show that the topological modes experience a critical slowing down that is much more severe than the one of the quasi-Gaussian modes relevant to the magnetic susceptibility, which is characterized by $\tau_{\rm mag} \sim \xi^z$ with $z\approx 2$. We argue that this may be a general feature of Monte Carlo simulations of lattice theories with non-trivial topological properties, such as QCD, as also suggested by recent Monte Carlo simulations of 4-d SU(N) lattice gauge theories.

Abstract:
The formation of topological defects in a second order phase transition in the early universe is an out-of-equilibrium process. Condensed matter experiments seem to support Zurek's mechanism, in which the freezing of thermal fluctuations close to the critical point (critical slowing down) plays a crucial role. We discuss how this picture can be extrapolated to the early universe, pointing out that new scaling laws may emerge at very high temperatures and showing how critical slowing down emerges in the context of a relativistic quantum field theory.

Abstract:
It is demonstrated that a straightforward extension of the Arrhenius law accurately describes diffusion in the thermodynamically stable liquid of hard spheres. A sharp negative deviation from this behaviour is observed as the liquid is compressed beyond its stability limit, which can be compared with super-Arrhenius slowing down in supercooled liquids. It is suggested that the observed dynamical transition is caused by extra entropy barriers arising in the free-energy landscape. This interpretation is corroborated by the observation of characteristic anomalies in the geometry of a particle trajectory.

Abstract:
The dynamics of water in aqueous solutions of three homologous disaccharides, namely trehalose, maltose and sucrose, has been analyzed by means of molecular dynamics simulations in the 0-66 wt % concentration range. The low-frequency vibrational densities of states (VDOS) of water were compared with the susceptibilities chi" of 0-40 wt % solutions of trehalose in D2O obtained from complementary Raman scattering experiments. Both reveal that sugars significantly stiffen the local environments experienced by water. Accordingly, its translational diffusion coefficient decreases when the sugar concentration increases, as a result of an increase of water-water hydrogen bonds lifetimes and of the corresponding activation energies. This induced slowing down of water dynamics, ascribed to the numerous hydrogen bonds that sugars form with water, is strongly amplified at concentrations above 40 wt % by the percolation of the hydrogen bond network of sugars, and may partially explain their well-known stabilizing effect on proteins in aqueous solutions.