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Granular association rule mining through parametric rough sets for cold start recommendation  [PDF]
Fan Min,William Zhu
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Granular association rules reveal patterns hide in many-to-many relationships which are common in relational databases. In recommender systems, these rules are appropriate for cold start recommendation, where a customer or a product has just entered the system. An example of such rules might be "40% men like at least 30% kinds of alcohol; 45% customers are men and 6% products are alcohol." Mining such rules is a challenging problem due to pattern explosion. In this paper, we propose a new type of parametric rough sets on two universes to study this problem. The model is deliberately defined such that the parameter corresponds to one threshold of rules. With the lower approximation operator in the new parametric rough sets, a backward algorithm is designed for the rule mining problem. Experiments on two real world data sets show that the new algorithm is significantly faster than the existing sandwich algorithm. This study indicates a new application area, namely recommender systems, of relational data mining, granular computing and rough sets.
Mining top-k granular association rules for recommendation  [PDF]
Fan Min,William Zhu
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Recommender systems are important for e-commerce companies as well as researchers. Recently, granular association rules have been proposed for cold-start recommendation. However, existing approaches reserve only globally strong rules; therefore some users may receive no recommendation at all. In this paper, we propose to mine the top-k granular association rules for each user. First we define three measures of granular association rules. These are the source coverage which measures the user granule size, the target coverage which measures the item granule size, and the confidence which measures the strength of the association. With the confidence measure, rules can be ranked according to their strength. Then we propose algorithms for training the recommender and suggesting items to each user. Experimental are undertaken on a publicly available data set MovieLens. Results indicate that the appropriate setting of granule can avoid over-fitting and at the same time, help obtaining high recommending accuracy.
Representation Learning for cold-start recommendation  [PDF]
Gabriella Contardo,Ludovic Denoyer,Thierry Artieres
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: A standard approach to Collaborative Filtering (CF), i.e. prediction of user ratings on items, relies on Matrix Factorization techniques. Representations for both users and items are computed from the observed ratings and used for prediction. Unfortunatly, these transductive approaches cannot handle the case of new users arriving in the system, with no known rating, a problem known as user cold-start. A common approach in this context is to ask these incoming users for a few initialization ratings. This paper presents a model to tackle this twofold problem of (i) finding good questions to ask, (ii) building efficient representations from this small amount of information. The model can also be used in a more standard (warm) context. Our approach is evaluated on the classical CF problem and on the cold-start problem on four different datasets showing its ability to improve baseline performance in both cases.
Promotional effect on cold start problem and diversity in a data characteristic based recommendation method  [PDF]
Tian Qiu,Zi-Ke Zhang,Guang Chen
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Pure methods generally perform excellently in either recommendation accuracy or diversity, whereas hybrid methods generally outperform pure cases in both recommendation accuracy and diversity, but encounter the dilemma of optimal hybridization parameter selection for different recommendation focuses. In this article, based on a user-item bipartite network, we propose a data characteristic based algorithm, by relating the hybridization parameter to the data characteristic. Different from previous hybrid methods, the present algorithm adaptively assign the optimal parameter specifically for each individual items according to the correlation between the algorithm and the item degrees. Compared with a highly accurate pure method, and a hybrid method which is outstanding in both the recommendation accuracy and the diversity, our method shows a remarkably promotional effect on the long-standing challenging problem of the cold start, as well as the recommendation diversity, while simultaneously keeps a high overall recommendation accuracy. Even compared with an improved hybrid method which is highly efficient on the cold start problem, the proposed method not only further improves the recommendation accuracy of the cold items, but also enhances the recommendation diversity. Our work might provide a promising way to better solving the personal recommendation from the perspective of relating algorithms with dataset properties.
Cold-start Problems in Recommendation Systems via Contextual-bandit Algorithms  [PDF]
Hai Thanh Nguyen,Jérémie Mary,Philippe Preux
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we study a cold-start problem in recommendation systems where we have completely new users entered the systems. There is not any interaction or feedback of the new users with the systems previoustly, thus no ratings are available. Trivial approaches are to select ramdom items or the most popular ones to recommend to the new users. However, these methods perform poorly in many case. In this research, we provide a new look of this cold-start problem in recommendation systems. In fact, we cast this cold-start problem as a contextual-bandit problem. No additional information on new users and new items is needed. We consider all the past ratings of previous users as contextual information to be integrated into the recommendation framework. To solve this type of the cold-start problems, we propose a new efficient method which is based on the LinUCB algorithm for contextual-bandit problems. The experiments were conducted on three different publicly-available data sets, namely Movielens, Netflix and Yahoo!Music. The new proposed methods were also compared with other state-of-the-art techniques. Experiments showed that our new method significantly improves upon all these methods.
OFF-Set: One-pass Factorization of Feature Sets for Online Recommendation in Persistent Cold Start Settings  [PDF]
Michal Aharon,Natalie Aizenberg,Edward Bortnikov,Ronny Lempel,Roi Adadi,Tomer Benyamini,Liron Levin,Ran Roth,Ohad Serfaty
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: One of the most challenging recommendation tasks is recommending to a new, previously unseen user. This is known as the 'user cold start' problem. Assuming certain features or attributes of users are known, one approach for handling new users is to initially model them based on their features. Motivated by an ad targeting application, this paper describes an extreme online recommendation setting where the cold start problem is perpetual. Every user is encountered by the system just once, receives a recommendation, and either consumes or ignores it, registering a binary reward. We introduce One-pass Factorization of Feature Sets, OFF-Set, a novel recommendation algorithm based on Latent Factor analysis, which models users by mapping their features to a latent space. Furthermore, OFF-Set is able to model non-linear interactions between pairs of features. OFF-Set is designed for purely online recommendation, performing lightweight updates of its model per each recommendation-reward observation. We evaluate OFF-Set against several state of the art baselines, and demonstrate its superiority on real ad-targeting data.
Factorizing LambdaMART for cold start recommendations  [PDF]
Phong Nguyen,Jun Wang,Alexandros Kalousis
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Recommendation systems often rely on point-wise loss metrics such as the mean squared error. However, in real recommendation settings only few items are presented to a user. This observation has recently encouraged the use of rank-based metrics. LambdaMART is the state-of-the-art algorithm in learning to rank which relies on such a metric. Despite its success it does not have a principled regularization mechanism relying in empirical approaches to control model complexity leaving it thus prone to overfitting. Motivated by the fact that very often the users' and items' descriptions as well as the preference behavior can be well summarized by a small number of hidden factors, we propose a novel algorithm, LambdaMART Matrix Factorization (LambdaMART-MF), that learns a low rank latent representation of users and items using gradient boosted trees. The algorithm factorizes lambdaMART by defining relevance scores as the inner product of the learned representations of the users and items. The low rank is essentially a model complexity controller; on top of it we propose additional regularizers to constraint the learned latent representations that reflect the user and item manifolds as these are defined by their original feature based descriptors and the preference behavior. Finally we also propose to use a weighted variant of NDCG to reduce the penalty for similar items with large rating discrepancy. We experiment on two very different recommendation datasets, meta-mining and movies-users, and evaluate the performance of LambdaMART-MF, with and without regularization, in the cold start setting as well as in the simpler matrix completion setting. In both cases it outperforms in a significant manner current state of the art algorithms.
The Continuous Cold Start Problem in e-Commerce Recommender Systems  [PDF]
Lucas Bernardi,Jaap Kamps,Julia Kiseleva,Melanie JI Müller
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Many e-commerce websites use recommender systems to recommend items to users. When a user or item is new, the system may fail because not enough information is available on this user or item. Various solutions to this `cold-start problem' have been proposed in the literature. However, many real-life e-commerce applications suffer from an aggravated, recurring version of cold-start even for known users or items, since many users visit the website rarely, change their interests over time, or exhibit different personas. This paper exposes the `Continuous Cold Start' (CoCoS) problem and its consequences for content- and context-based recommendation from the viewpoint of typical e-commerce applications, illustrated with examples from a major travel recommendation website, Booking.com.
Solving the Cold-Start Problem in Recommender Systems with Social Tags  [PDF]
Zi-Ke Zhang,Chuang Liu,Yi-Cheng Zhang,Tao Zhou
Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2012.03.025
Abstract: In this paper, based on the user-tag-object tripartite graphs, we propose a recommendation algorithm, which considers social tags as an important role for information retrieval. Besides its low cost of computational time, the experiment results of two real-world data sets, \emph{Del.icio.us} and \emph{MovieLens}, show it can enhance the algorithmic accuracy and diversity. Especially, it can obtain more personalized recommendation results when users have diverse topics of tags. In addition, the numerical results on the dependence of algorithmic accuracy indicates that the proposed algorithm is particularly effective for small degree objects, which reminds us of the well-known \emph{cold-start} problem in recommender systems. Further empirical study shows that the proposed algorithm can significantly solve this problem in social tagging systems with heterogeneous object degree distributions.
Alleviating the Cold Start Problem in Recommender Systems Based on Modularity Maximization Community Detection Algorithm  [PDF]
S. Vairachilai, M. K. Kavithadevi, M. Raja
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78111
Abstract: Recommender system (RS) has become a very important factor in many eCommerce sites. In our daily life, we rely on the recommendation from other persons either by word of mouth, recommendation letters, movie, item and book reviews printed in newspapers, etc. The typical Recommender Systems are software tools and techniques that provide support to people by identifying interesting products and services in online store. It also provides a recommendation for certain users who search for the recommendations. The most important open challenge in Collaborative filtering recommender system is the cold start problem. If the adequate or sufficient information is not available for a new item or users, the recommender system runs into the cold start problem. To increase the usefulness of collaborative recommender systems, it could be desirable to eliminate the challenge such as cold start problem. Revealing the community structures is crucial to understand and more important with the increasing popularity of online social networks. The community detection is a key issue in social network analysis in which nodes of the communities are tightly connected each other and loosely connected between other communities. Many algorithms like Givan-Newman algorithm, modularity maximization, leading eigenvector, walk trap, etc., are used to detect the communities in the networks. To test the community division is meaningful we define a quality function called modularity. Modularity is that the links within a community are higher than the expected links in those communities. In this paper, we try to give a solution to the cold-start problem based on community detection algorithm that extracts the community from the social networks and identifies the similar users on that network. Hence, within the proposed work several intrinsic details are taken as a rule of thumb to boost the results higher. Moreover, the simulation experiment was taken to solve the cold start problem.
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