Abstract:
The quotient complexity, also known as state complexity, of a regular language is the number of distinct left quotients of the language. The quotient complexity of an operation is the maximal quotient complexity of the language resulting from the operation, as a function of the quotient complexities of the operands. The class of star-free languages is the smallest class containing the finite languages and closed under boolean operations and concatenation. We prove that the tight bounds on the quotient complexities of union, intersection, difference, symmetric difference, concatenation, and star for star-free languages are the same as those for regular languages, with some small exceptions, whereas the bound for reversal is 2^n-1.

Abstract:
The syntactic complexity of a regular language is the cardinality of its syntactic semigroup. The syntactic complexity of a subclass of the class of regular languages is the maximal syntactic complexity of languages in that class, taken as a function of the state complexity $n$ of these languages. We study the syntactic complexity of prefix-, suffix-, bifix-, and factor-free regular languages. We prove that $n^{n-2}$ is a tight upper bound for prefix-free regular languages. We present properties of the syntactic semigroups of suffix-, bifix-, and factor-free regular languages, conjecture tight upper bounds on their size to be $(n-1)^{n-2}+(n-2)$, $(n-1)^{n-3} + (n-2)^{n-3} + (n-3)2^{n-3}$, and $(n-1)^{n-3} + (n-3)2^{n-3} + 1$, respectively, and exhibit languages with these syntactic complexities.

Abstract:
We study various complexity properties of suffix-free regular languages. The quotient complexity of a regular language $L$ is the number of left quotients of $L$; this is the same as the state complexity of $L$. A regular language $L'$ is a dialect of a regular language $L$ if it differs only slightly from $L$. The quotient complexity of an operation on regular languages is the maximal quotient complexity of the result of the operation expressed as a function of the quotient complexities of the operands. A sequence $(L_k,L_{k+1},\dots)$ of regular languages in some class ${\mathcal C}$, where $n$ is the quotient complexity of $L_n$, is called a stream. A stream is most complex in class ${\mathcal C}$ if its languages $L_n$ meet the complexity upper bounds for all basic measures. It is known that there exist such most complex streams in the class of regular languages, in the class of prefix-free languages, and also in the classes of right, left, and two-sided ideals. In contrast to this, we prove that there does not exist a most complex stream in the class of suffix-free regular languages. However, we do exhibit one ternary suffix-free stream that meets the bound for product and whose restrictions to binary alphabets meet the bounds for star and boolean operations. We also exhibit a quinary stream that meets the bounds for boolean operations, reversal, size of syntactic semigroup, and atom complexities. Moreover, we solve an open problem about the bound for the product of two languages of quotient complexities $m$ and $n$ in the binary case by showing that it can be met for infinitely many $m$ and $n$.

Abstract:
A (left) quotient of a language $L$ by a word $w$ is the language $w^{-1}L=\{x\mid wx\in L\}$. The quotient complexity of a regular language $L$ is the number of quotients of $L$; it is equal to the state complexity of $L$, which is the number of states in a minimal deterministic finite automaton accepting $L$. An atom of $L$ is an equivalence class of the relation in which two words are equivalent if for each quotient, they either are both in the quotient or both not in it; hence it is a non-empty intersection of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of $L$. A right (respectively, left and two-sided) ideal is a language $L$ over an alphabet $\Sigma$ that satisfies $L=L\Sigma^*$ (respectively, $L=\Sigma^*L$ and $L=\Sigma^*L\Sigma^*$). We compute the maximal number of atoms and the maximal quotient complexities of atoms of right, left and two-sided regular ideals.

Abstract:
An atom of a regular language L with n (left) quotients is a non-empty intersection of uncomplemented or complemented quotients of L, where each of the n quotients appears in a term of the intersection. The quotient complexity of L, which is the same as the state complexity of L, is the number of quotients of L. We prove that, for any language L with quotient complexity n, the quotient complexity of any atom of L with r complemented quotients has an upper bound of 2^n-1 if r=0 or r=n, and 1+\sum_{k=1}^{r} \sum_{h=k+1}^{k+n-r} C_{h}^{n} \cdot C_{k}^{h} otherwise, where C_j^i is the binomial coefficient. For each n\ge 1, we exhibit a language whose atoms meet these bounds.

Abstract:
The syntactic complexity of a regular language is the cardinality of its syntactic semigroup. The syntactic complexity of a subclass of regular languages is the maximal syntactic complexity of languages in that subclass, taken as a function of the state complexity of these languages. We study the syntactic complexity of star-free regular languages, that is, languages that can be constructed from finite languages using union, complement and concatenation. We find tight upper bounds on the syntactic complexity of languages accepted by monotonic and partially monotonic automata. We introduce "nearly monotonic" automata, which accept star-free languages, and find a tight upper bound on the syntactic complexity of languages accepted by such automata. We conjecture that this bound is also an upper bound on the syntactic complexity of star-free languages.

Abstract:
The syntactic monoid of a language is generalized to the level of a symmetric monoidal closed category D. This allows for a uniform treatment of several notions of syntactic algebras known in the literature, including the syntactic monoids of Rabin and Scott (D = sets), the syntactic semirings of Polak (D = semilattices), and the syntactic associative algebras of Reutenauer (D = vector spaces). Assuming that D is an entropic variety of algebras, we prove that the syntactic D-monoid of a language L can be constructed as a quotient of a free D-monoid modulo the syntactic congruence of L, and that it is isomorphic to the transition D-monoid of the minimal automaton for L in D. Furthermore, in case the variety D is locally finite, we characterize the regular languages as precisely the languages with finite syntactic D-monoids.

Abstract:
The syntactic complexity of a regular language is the cardinality of its syntactic semigroup. The syntactic complexity of a subclass of the class of regular languages is the maximal syntactic complexity of languages in that class, taken as a function of the state complexity n of these languages. We study the syntactic complexity of R- and J-trivial regular languages, and prove that n! and floor of [e(n-1)!] are tight upper bounds for these languages, respectively. We also prove that 2^{n-1} is the tight upper bound on the state complexity of reversal of J-trivial regular languages.

Abstract:
The state complexity of a regular language is the number of states in a minimal deterministic finite automaton accepting the language. The syntactic complexity of a regular language is the cardinality of its syntactic semigroup. The syntactic complexity of a subclass of regular languages is the worst-case syntactic complexity taken as a function of the state complexity $n$ of languages in that class. We prove that $n^{n-1}$, $n^{n-1}+n-1$, and $n^{n-2}+(n-2)2^{n-2}+1$ are tight upper bounds on the syntactic complexities of right ideals and prefix-closed languages, left ideals and suffix-closed languages, and two-sided ideals and factor-closed languages, respectively. Moreover, we show that the transition semigroups meeting the upper bounds for all three types of ideals are unique, and the numbers of generators (4, 5, and 6, respectively) cannot be reduced.