Abstract:
This paper investigates reliable and covert transmission strategies in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel with a transmitter, receiver and an adversarial wiretapper, each equipped with multiple antennas. In a departure from existing work, the wiretapper possesses a novel capability to act either as a passive eavesdropper or as an active jammer, under a half-duplex constraint. The transmitter therefore faces a choice between allocating all of its power for data, or broadcasting artificial interference along with the information signal in an attempt to jam the eavesdropper (assuming its instantaneous channel state is unknown). To examine the resulting trade-offs for the legitimate transmitter and the adversary, we model their interactions as a two-person zero-sum game with the ergodic MIMO secrecy rate as the payoff function. We first examine conditions for the existence of pure-strategy Nash equilibria (NE) and the structure of mixed-strategy NE for the strategic form of the game.We then derive equilibrium strategies for the extensive form of the game where players move sequentially under scenarios of perfect and imperfect information. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to examine the equilibrium outcomes of the various scenarios considered.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the achievable sum secrecy rate in full-duplex wiretap channel in the presence of an eavesdropper and imperfect channel state information (CSI). We assume that the users participating in full-duplex communication and the eavesdropper have single antenna each. The users have individual transmit power constraints. They also transmit jamming signals to improve the secrecy rates. We obtain the achievable perfect secrecy rate region by maximizing the sum secrecy rate. We also obtain the corresponding optimum powers of the message signals and the jamming signals. Numerical results that show the impact of imperfect CSI on the achievable secrecy rate region are presented.

Abstract:
We consider three channel models: the wiretap channel with $M$ helpers, the $K$-user multiple access wiretap channel, and the $K$-user interference channel with an external eavesdropper, when no eavesdropper's channel state information (CSI) is available at the transmitters. In each case, we establish the optimal sum secure degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) by providing achievable schemes and matching converses. We show that the unavailability of the eavesdropper's CSIT does not reduce the s.d.o.f. of the wiretap channel with helpers. However, there is loss in s.d.o.f. for both the multiple access wiretap channel and the interference channel with an external eavesdropper. In particular, we show that in the absence of eavesdropper's CSIT, the $K$-user multiple access wiretap channel reduces to a wiretap channel with $(K-1)$ helpers from a sum s.d.o.f. perspective, and the optimal sum s.d.o.f. reduces from $\frac{K(K-1)}{K(K-1)+1}$ to $\frac{K-1}{K}$. For the interference channel with an external eavesdropper, the optimal sum s.d.o.f. decreases from $\frac{K(K-1)}{2K-1}$ to $\frac{K-1}{2}$ in the absence of the eavesdropper's CSIT. Our results show that the lack of eavesdropper's CSIT does not have a significant impact on the optimal s.d.o.f. for any of the three channel models, especially when the number of users is large. This implies that physical layer security can be made robust to the unavailability of eavesdropper CSIT at high signal to noise ratio (SNR) regimes by careful modification of the achievable schemes as demonstrated in this paper.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the achievable sum secrecy rate in MISO (multiple-input-single-output) {\em full-duplex} wiretap channel in the presence of a passive eavesdropper and imperfect channel state information (CSI). We assume that the users participating in full-duplex communication have multiple transmit antennas, and that the users and the eavesdropper have single receive antenna each. The users have individual transmit power constraints. They also transmit jamming signals to improve the secrecy rates. We obtain the achievable perfect secrecy rate region by maximizing the worst case sum secrecy rate. We also obtain the corresponding transmit covariance matrices associated with the message signals and the jamming signals. Numerical results that show the impact of imperfect CSI on the achievable secrecy rate region are presented.

Abstract:
Secure communications can be impeded by eavesdroppers in conventional relay systems. This paper proposes cooperative jamming strategies for two-hop relay networks where the eavesdropper can wiretap the relay channels in both hops. In these approaches, the normally inactive nodes in the relay network can be used as cooperative jamming sources to confuse the eavesdropper. Linear precoding schemes are investigated for two scenarios where single or multiple data streams are transmitted via a decode-and-forward (DF) relay, under the assumption that global channel state information (CSI) is available. For the case of single data stream transmission, we derive closed-form jamming beamformers and the corresponding optimal power allocation. Generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD)-based secure relaying schemes are proposed for the transmission of multiple data streams. The optimal power allocation is found for the GSVD relaying scheme via geometric programming. Based on this result, a GSVD-based cooperative jamming scheme is proposed that shows significant improvement in terms of secrecy rate compared to the approach without jamming. Furthermore, the case involving an eavesdropper with unknown CSI is also investigated in this paper. Simulation results show that the secrecy rate is dramatically increased when inactive nodes in the relay network participate in cooperative jamming.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate methods for reducing the likelihood that a message transmitted between two multiantenna nodes is intercepted by an undetected eavesdropper. In particular, we focus on the judicious transmission of artificial interference to mask the desired signal at the time it is broadcast. Unlike previous work that assumes some prior knowledge of the eavesdropper's channel and focuses on maximizing secrecy capacity, we consider the case where no information regarding the eavesdropper is available, and we use signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) as our performance metric. Specifically, we focus on the problem of maximizing the amount of power available to broadcast a jamming signal intended to hide the desired signal from a potential eavesdropper, while maintaining a prespecified SINR at the desired receiver. The jamming signal is designed to be orthogonal to the information signal when it reaches the desired receiver, assuming both the receiver and the eavesdropper employ optimal beamformers and possess exact channel state information (CSI). In practice, the assumption of perfect CSI at the transmitter is often difficult to justify. Therefore, we also study the resulting performance degradation due to the presence of imperfect CSI, and we present robust beamforming schemes that recover a large fraction of the performance in the perfect CSI case. Numerical simulations verify our analytical performance predictions, and illustrate the benefit of the robust beamforming schemes.

Abstract:
A wireless communication network is considered, consisting of a source (Alice), a destination (Bob) and an eavesdropper (Eve), each equipped with a single antenna. The communication is assisted by multiple helpers, each equipped with two antennas, which implement cooperative jamming, i.e., transmitting noise to confound Eve. The optimal structure of the jamming noise that maximizes the secrecy rate is derived. A nulling noise scenario is also considered, in which each helper transmits noise that nulls out at Bob. Each helper only requires knowledge of its own link to Bob to determine the noise locally. For the optimally structured noise, global information of all the links is required. Although analysis shows that under the two-antenna per helper scenario the nulling solution is sub-optimal in terms of the achievable secrecy rate, simulations show that the performance difference is rather small, with the inexpensive and easy to implement nulling scheme performing near optimal.

Abstract:
We consider a two user fading Multiple Access Channel with a wire-tapper (MAC-WT) where the transmitter has the channel state information (CSI) to the intended receiver but not to the eavesdropper (eve). We provide an achievable secrecy sum-rate with optimal power control. We next provide a secrecy sum-rate with optimal power control and cooperative jamming (CJ). We then study an achievable secrecy sum rate by employing an ON/OFF power control scheme which is more easily computable. We also employ CJ over this power control scheme. Results show that CJ boosts the secrecy sum-rate significantly even if we do not know the CSI of the eve's channel. At high SNR, the secrecy sum-rate (with CJ) without CSI of the eve exceeds the secrecy sum-rate (without CJ) with full CSI of the eve.

Abstract:
In this work, a class of information theoretic secrecy problems is addressed where the eavesdropper channel states are completely unknown to the legitimate parties. In particular, MIMO wiretap channel models are considered where the channel of the eavesdropper is arbitrarily varying over time. Assuming that the number of antennas of the eavesdropper is limited, the secrecy rate of the MIMO wiretap channel in the sense of strong secrecy is derived, and shown to match with the converse in secure degrees of freedom. It is proved that there exists a universal coding scheme that secures the confidential message against any sequence of channel states experienced by the eavesdropper. This yields the conclusion that secure communication is possible regardless of the location or channel states of (potentially infinite number of) eavesdroppers. Additionally, it is observed that, the present setting renders the secrecy capacity problems for multi-terminal wiretap-type channels more tractable as compared the case with full or partial knowledge of eavesdropper channel states. To demonstrate this observation, secure degrees of freedom regions are derived for the Gaussian MIMO multiple access wiretap channel (MIMO MAC-WT) and the Gaussian MIMO broadcast wiretap channel (MIMO BC-WT) where the transmitter(s) and the intended receiver(s) have the same number of antennas.

Abstract:
This paper presents a polar coding scheme to achieve secrecy in block fading binary symmetric wiretap channels without the knowledge of instantaneous channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. For this model, a coding scheme that hierarchically utilizes polar codes is presented. In particular, on polarization of different binary symmetric channels over different fading blocks, each channel use is modeled as an appropriate binary erasure channel over fading blocks. Polar codes are constructed for both coding over channel uses for each fading block and coding over fading blocks for certain channel uses. In order to guarantee security, random bits are introduced at appropriate places to exhaust the observations of the eavesdropper. It is shown that this coding scheme, without instantaneous CSI at the transmitter, is secrecy capacity achieving for the simultaneous fading scenario. For the independent fading case, the capacity is achieved when the fading realizations for the eavesdropper channel is always degraded with respect to the receiver. For the remaining cases, the gap is analyzed by comparing lower and upper bounds. Remarkably, for the scenarios where the secrecy capacity is achieved, the results imply that instantaneous CSI does not increase the secrecy capacity.