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Online Multiple Kernel Learning for Structured Prediction  [PDF]
Andre F. T. Martins,Mario A. T. Figueiredo,Pedro M. Q. Aguiar,Noah A. Smith,Eric P. Xing
Statistics , 2010,
Abstract: Despite the recent progress towards efficient multiple kernel learning (MKL), the structured output case remains an open research front. Current approaches involve repeatedly solving a batch learning problem, which makes them inadequate for large scale scenarios. We propose a new family of online proximal algorithms for MKL (as well as for group-lasso and variants thereof), which overcomes that drawback. We show regret, convergence, and generalization bounds for the proposed method. Experiments on handwriting recognition and dependency parsing testify for the successfulness of the approach.
Efficient Output Kernel Learning for Multiple Tasks  [PDF]
Pratik Jawanpuria,Maksim Lapin,Matthias Hein,Bernt Schiele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The paradigm of multi-task learning is that one can achieve better generalization by learning tasks jointly and thus exploiting the similarity between the tasks rather than learning them independently of each other. While previously the relationship between tasks had to be user-defined in the form of an output kernel, recent approaches jointly learn the tasks and the output kernel. As the output kernel is a positive semidefinite matrix, the resulting optimization problems are not scalable in the number of tasks as an eigendecomposition is required in each step. \mbox{Using} the theory of positive semidefinite kernels we show in this paper that for a certain class of regularizers on the output kernel, the constraint of being positive semidefinite can be dropped as it is automatically satisfied for the relaxed problem. This leads to an unconstrained dual problem which can be solved efficiently. Experiments on several multi-task and multi-class data sets illustrate the efficacy of our approach in terms of computational efficiency as well as generalization performance.
Domain Transfer Structured Output Learning  [PDF]
Jim Jing-Yan Wang
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose the problem of domain transfer structured output learn- ing and the first solution to solve it. The problem is defined on two different data domains sharing the same input and output spaces, named as source domain and target domain. The outputs are structured, and for the data samples of the source domain, the corresponding outputs are available, while for most data samples of the target domain, the corresponding outputs are missing. The input distributions of the two domains are significantly different. The problem is to learn a predictor for the target domain to predict the structured outputs from the input. Due to the limited number of outputs available for the samples form the target domain, it is difficult to directly learn the predictor from the target domain, thus it is necessary to use the output information available in source domain. We propose to learn the target domain predictor by adapting a auxiliary predictor trained by using source domain data to the target domain. The adaptation is implemented by adding a delta function on the basis of the auxiliary predictor. An algorithm is developed to learn the parameter of the delta function to minimize loss functions associat- ed with the predicted outputs against the true outputs of the data samples with available outputs of the target domain.
Efficient Multi-Template Learning for Structured Prediction  [PDF]
Qi Mao,Ivor W. Tsang
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Conditional random field (CRF) and Structural Support Vector Machine (Structural SVM) are two state-of-the-art methods for structured prediction which captures the interdependencies among output variables. The success of these methods is attributed to the fact that their discriminative models are able to account for overlapping features on the whole input observations. These features are usually generated by applying a given set of templates on labeled data, but improper templates may lead to degraded performance. To alleviate this issue, in this paper, we propose a novel multiple template learning paradigm to learn structured prediction and the importance of each template simultaneously, so that hundreds of arbitrary templates could be added into the learning model without caution. This paradigm can be formulated as a special multiple kernel learning problem with exponential number of constraints. Then we introduce an efficient cutting plane algorithm to solve this problem in the primal, and its convergence is presented. We also evaluate the proposed learning paradigm on two widely-studied structured prediction tasks, \emph{i.e.} sequence labeling and dependency parsing. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms CRFs and Structural SVMs due to exploiting the importance of each template. Our complexity analysis and empirical results also show that our proposed method is more efficient than OnlineMKL on very sparse and high-dimensional data. We further extend this paradigm for structured prediction using generalized $p$-block norm regularization with $p>1$, and experiments show competitive performances when $p \in [1,2)$.
Deep Structured Output Learning for Unconstrained Text Recognition  [PDF]
Max Jaderberg,Karen Simonyan,Andrea Vedaldi,Andrew Zisserman
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We develop a representation suitable for the unconstrained recognition of words in natural images: the general case of no fixed lexicon and unknown length. To this end we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) based architecture which incorporates a Conditional Random Field (CRF) graphical model, taking the whole word image as a single input. The unaries of the CRF are provided by a CNN that predicts characters at each position of the output, while higher order terms are provided by another CNN that detects the presence of N-grams. We show that this entire model (CRF, character predictor, N-gram predictor) can be jointly optimised by back-propagating the structured output loss, essentially requiring the system to perform multi-task learning, and training uses purely synthetically generated data. The resulting model is a more accurate system on standard real-world text recognition benchmarks than character prediction alone, setting a benchmark for systems that have not been trained on a particular lexicon. In addition, our model achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in lexicon-constrained scenarios, without being specifically modelled for constrained recognition. To test the generalisation of our model, we also perform experiments with random alpha-numeric strings to evaluate the method when no visual language model is applicable.
Kernel-based Distance Metric Learning in the Output Space  [PDF]
Cong Li,Michael Georgiopoulos,Georgios C. Anagnostopoulos
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.2013.6706862
Abstract: In this paper we present two related, kernel-based Distance Metric Learning (DML) methods. Their respective models non-linearly map data from their original space to an output space, and subsequent distance measurements are performed in the output space via a Mahalanobis metric. The dimensionality of the output space can be directly controlled to facilitate the learning of a low-rank metric. Both methods allow for simultaneous inference of the associated metric and the mapping to the output space, which can be used to visualize the data, when the output space is 2- or 3-dimensional. Experimental results for a collection of classification tasks illustrate the advantages of the proposed methods over other traditional and kernel-based DML approaches.
Large Margin Semi-supervised Structured Output Learning  [PDF]
P. Balamurugan,Shirish Shevade,Sundararajan Sellamanickam
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In structured output learning, obtaining labelled data for real-world applications is usually costly, while unlabelled examples are available in abundance. Semi-supervised structured classification has been developed to handle large amounts of unlabelled structured data. In this work, we consider semi-supervised structural SVMs with domain constraints. The optimization problem, which in general is not convex, contains the loss terms associated with the labelled and unlabelled examples along with the domain constraints. We propose a simple optimization approach, which alternates between solving a supervised learning problem and a constraint matching problem. Solving the constraint matching problem is difficult for structured prediction, and we propose an efficient and effective hill-climbing method to solve it. The alternating optimization is carried out within a deterministic annealing framework, which helps in effective constraint matching, and avoiding local minima which are not very useful. The algorithm is simple to implement and achieves comparable generalization performance on benchmark datasets.
Structured Learning Modulo Theories  [PDF]
Stefano Teso,Roberto Sebastiani,Andrea Passerini
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Modelling problems containing a mixture of Boolean and numerical variables is a long-standing interest of Artificial Intelligence. However, performing inference and learning in hybrid domains is a particularly daunting task. The ability to model this kind of domains is crucial in "learning to design" tasks, that is, learning applications where the goal is to learn from examples how to perform automatic {\em de novo} design of novel objects. In this paper we present Structured Learning Modulo Theories, a max-margin approach for learning in hybrid domains based on Satisfiability Modulo Theories, which allows to combine Boolean reasoning and optimization over continuous linear arithmetical constraints. The main idea is to leverage a state-of-the-art generalized Satisfiability Modulo Theory solver for implementing the inference and separation oracles of Structured Output SVMs. We validate our method on artificial and real world scenarios.
Multi-utility Learning: Structured-output Learning with Multiple Annotation-specific Loss Functions  [PDF]
Roman Shapovalov,Dmitry Vetrov,Anton Osokin,Pushmeet Kohli
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Structured-output learning is a challenging problem; particularly so because of the difficulty in obtaining large datasets of fully labelled instances for training. In this paper we try to overcome this difficulty by presenting a multi-utility learning framework for structured prediction that can learn from training instances with different forms of supervision. We propose a unified technique for inferring the loss functions most suitable for quantifying the consistency of solutions with the given weak annotation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework on the challenging semantic image segmentation problem for which a wide variety of annotations can be used. For instance, the popular training datasets for semantic segmentation are composed of images with hard-to-generate full pixel labellings, as well as images with easy-to-obtain weak annotations, such as bounding boxes around objects, or image-level labels that specify which object categories are present in an image. Experimental evaluation shows that the use of annotation-specific loss functions dramatically improves segmentation accuracy compared to the baseline system where only one type of weak annotation is used.
Metric Learning Driven Multi-Task Structured Output Optimization for Robust Keypoint Tracking  [PDF]
Liming Zhao,Xi Li,Jun Xiao,Fei Wu,Yueting Zhuang
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: As an important and challenging problem in computer vision and graphics, keypoint-based object tracking is typically formulated in a spatio-temporal statistical learning framework. However, most existing keypoint trackers are incapable of effectively modeling and balancing the following three aspects in a simultaneous manner: temporal model coherence across frames, spatial model consistency within frames, and discriminative feature construction. To address this issue, we propose a robust keypoint tracker based on spatio-temporal multi-task structured output optimization driven by discriminative metric learning. Consequently, temporal model coherence is characterized by multi-task structured keypoint model learning over several adjacent frames, while spatial model consistency is modeled by solving a geometric verification based structured learning problem. Discriminative feature construction is enabled by metric learning to ensure the intra-class compactness and inter-class separability. Finally, the above three modules are simultaneously optimized in a joint learning scheme. Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of our tracker.
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