Abstract:
In this paper bounded model checking of asynchronous concurrent systems is introduced as a promising application area for answer set programming. As the model of asynchronous systems a generalisation of communicating automata, 1-safe Petri nets, are used. It is shown how a 1-safe Petri net and a requirement on the behaviour of the net can be translated into a logic program such that the bounded model checking problem for the net can be solved by computing stable models of the corresponding program. The use of the stable model semantics leads to compact encodings of bounded reachability and deadlock detection tasks as well as the more general problem of bounded model checking of linear temporal logic. Correctness proofs of the devised translations are given, and some experimental results using the translation and the Smodels system are presented.

Abstract:
Satisfiability checking for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) is a fundamental step in checking for possible errors in LTL assertions. Extant LTL satisfiability checkers use a variety of different search procedures. With the sole exception of LTL satisfiability checking based on bounded model checking, which does not provide a complete decision procedure, LTL satisfiability checkers have not taken advantage of the remarkable progress over the past 20 years in Boolean satisfiability solving. In this paper, we propose a new LTL satisfiability-checking framework that is accelerated using a Boolean SAT solver. Our approach is based on the variant of the \emph{obligation-set method}, which we proposed in earlier work. We describe here heuristics that allow the use of a Boolean SAT solver to analyze the obligations for a given LTL formula. The experimental evaluation indicates that the new approach provides a a significant performance advantage.

Abstract:
Path checking, the special case of the model checking problem where the model under consideration is a single path, plays an important role in monitoring, testing, and verification. We prove that for linear-time temporal logic (LTL), path checking can be efficiently parallelized. In addition to the core logic, we consider the extensions of LTL with bounded-future (BLTL) and past-time (LTL+Past) operators. Even though both extensions improve the succinctness of the logic exponentially, path checking remains efficiently parallelizable: Our algorithm for LTL, LTL+Past, and BLTL+Past is in AC^1(logDCFL) \subseteq NC.

Abstract:
This paper introduces a novel technique to decide the satisfiability of formulae written in the language of Linear Temporal Logic with Both future and past operators and atomic formulae belonging to constraint system D (CLTLB(D) for short). The technique is based on the concept of bounded satisfiability, and hinges on an encoding of CLTLB(D) formulae into QF-EUD, the theory of quantifier-free equality and uninterpreted functions combined with D. Similarly to standard LTL, where bounded model-checking and SAT-solvers can be used as an alternative to automata-theoretic approaches to model-checking, our approach allows users to solve the satisfiability problem for CLTLB(D) formulae through SMT-solving techniques, rather than by checking the emptiness of the language of a suitable automaton A_{\phi}. The technique is effective, and it has been implemented in our Zot formal verification tool.

Abstract:
Timed automata (TAs) are a common formalism for modeling timed systems. Bounded model checking (BMC) is a verification method that searches for runs violating a property using a SAT or SMT solver. MITL is a real-time extension of the linear time logic LTL. Originally, MITL was defined for traces of non-overlapping time intervals rather than the "super-dense" time traces allowing for intervals overlapping in single points that are employed by the nowadays common semantics of timed automata. In this paper we extend the semantics of a fragment of MITL to super-dense time traces and devise a bounded model checking encoding for the fragment. We prove correctness and completeness in the sense that using a sufficiently large bound a counter-example to any given non-holding property can be found. We have implemented the proposed bounded model checking approach and experimentally studied the efficiency and scalability of the implementation.

Abstract:
The parameter synthesis problem for timed automata is undecidable in general even for very simple reachability properties. In this paper we introduce restrictions on parameter valuations under which the parameter synthesis problem is decidable for LTL properties. The proposed problem could be solved using an explicit enumeration of all possible parameter valuations. However, we introduce a symbolic zone-based method for synthesising bounded integer parameters of parametric timed automata with an LTL specification. Our method extends the ideas of the standard automata-based approach to LTL model checking of timed automata. Our solution employs constrained parametric difference bound matrices and a suitable notion of extrapolation.

Abstract:
SAT-Based bounded model checking (BMC) has high complexity in dealing with real-time systems. Satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers can generalize SAT solving by adding the ability to handle arithmetic and other decidable theories. This paper uses SMT in BMC for real-time systems instead of SAT. The clocks can be represented as integer or real variables directly and clock constraints can be represented as linear arithmetic expressions. These make the checking procedure more efficient. TCTL (timed computation tree logic) is used to specify the properties of real-time systems and improvement of the encodings has been done.

Abstract:
SAT-Based bounded model checking (BMC) has high complexity in dealing with real-time systems. Satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers can generalize SAT solving by adding the ability to handle arithmetic and other decidable theories. This paper uses SMT in BMC for real-time systems instead of SAT. The clocks can be represented as integer or real variables directly and clock constraints can be represented as linear arithmetic expressions. These make the checking procedure more efficient. TCTL (timed computation tree logic) is used to specify the properties of real-time systems and improvement of the encodings has been done.

Abstract:
We propose a novel algorithm for automata-based LTL model checking that interleaves the construction of the generalized B\"{u}chi automaton for the negation of the formula and the emptiness check. Our algorithm first converts the LTL formula into a linear weak alternating automaton; configurations of the alternating automaton correspond to the locations of a generalized B\"{u}chi automaton, and a variant of Tarjan's algorithm is used to decide the existence of an accepting run of the product of the transition system and the automaton. Because we avoid an explicit construction of the B\"{u}chi automaton, our approach can yield significant improvements in runtime and memory, for large LTL formulas. The algorithm has been implemented within the SPIN model checker, and we present experimental results for some benchmark examples.

Abstract:
SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) has been introduced as a complementary technique to BDD-based symbolic model checking in recent years, and a lot of successful work has been done in this direction. The approach was first introduced by A. Biere et al. in checking linear temporal logic (LTL) formulae and then also adapted to check formulae of the universal fragment of computation tree logic (ACTL) by W. Penczek et al. As the efficiency of model checking is still an important issue, we present an improved BMC approach for ACTL based on Penczek’s method. We consider two aspects of the approach. One is reduction of the number of variables and transitions in the k-model by distinguishing the temporal operator EX from the others. The other is simplification of the transformation of formulae by using uniform path encoding instead of a disjunction of all paths needed in the k-model. With these improvements, for an ACTL formula, the length of the final encoding of the formula in the worst case is reduced. The improved approach is implemented in the tool BMV and is compared with the original one by applying both to two well known examples, mutual exclusion and dining philosophers. The comparison shows the advantages of the improved approach with respect to the efficiency of model checking. Electronic Supplementary Material The online version of this article (doi:) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 60573012 and No. 60721061, and the National Basic Research 973 Program of China under Grant No. 2002CB312200.