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Conductivity of Metallic Si:B near the Metal-Insulator Transition: Comparison between Unstressed and Uniaxially Stressed Samples  [PDF]
S. Bogdanovich,M. P. Sarachik,R. N. Bhatt
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.60.2292
Abstract: The low-temperature dc conductivities of barely metallic samples of p-type Si:B are compared for a series of samples with different dopant concentrations, n, in the absence of stress (cubic symmetry), and for a single sample driven from the metallic into the insulating phase by uniaxial compression, S. For all values of temperature and stress, the conductivity of the stressed sample collapses onto a single universal scaling curve. The scaling fit indicates that the conductivity of si:B is proportional to the square-root of T in the critical range. Our data yield a critical conductivity exponent of 1.6, considerably larger than the value reported in earlier experiments where the transition was crossed by varying the dopant concentration. The larger exponent is based on data in a narrow range of stress near the critical value within which scaling holds. We show explicitly that the temperature dependences of the conductivity of stressed and unstressed Si:B are different, suggesting that a direct comparison of the critical behavior and critical exponents for stress- tuned and concentration-tuned transitions may not be warranted.
Pronouns in Estonian Child Language
Maigi Vija , Renate Pajusalu
Ad verba liberorum , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10196-011-0003-4
Abstract: Pronouns are words that fall on the boundaries of vocabulary and grammar. They possess several distinctive characteristics that are important for language acquisition. First, since the referent of a pronoun only becomes apparent in context, the interpretation of pronouns requires a specific kind of information. In order to understand to whom I, you or this refer, we need to know the whole communicative situation. This fact should still not complicate language acquisition too much, because the child's language development starts with ‘here and now’. Yet, the acquisition of a pragmatico-grammatical complex of pronouns is bound to take time due to the variety of pronoun functions involved. On the one hand, the referents of pronouns (especially those of speech act pronouns mina ‘I’ and sina ‘you:2SG’) change constantly, making an exact repetition of what an adult said, in most cases, impossible for the child. On the other hand, the areas of use of certain pronouns (e.g., those expressing definiteness) require the mastery of narrative principles. There are also studies that show that the acquisition of pronouns after the critical age is especially difficult or even impossible (see the discussion of Genie's case in Lust 2006: 95). This article gives an analysis of the acquisition of Estonian personal and demonstrative pronouns. In Estonian, similarly to many other languages, a group of frequently used pronouns functions as a device for minimal reference and for determining noun phrases for referential needs of ongoing discourse. The group consists of different types of pronouns: personal (mina, sina, tema, meie, teie, nemad), demonstrative (see), possessive (oma), and quantificational (üks, mingi). In addition, there are also some adverbs used for deictic reference, for example those of spatial reference (siin ‘here’, seal ‘there’, etc.). Some of these pro-words are typically used in deictic contexts and refer to entities present in the physical context (1 and 2sg personal pronouns and demonstratives); others refer primarily anaphorically (3rd person pronoun and demonstratives), and typically have an antecedent in the ongoing discourse. The same pronouns (except personal) can function as determiners very much like articles in Indo-European languages. Thus, we can see a group of core prowords that are frequent and have different functions. An overview of these devices of pronominal reference is given in Pajusalu (in press).
A Centering Approach to Pronouns  [PDF]
Susan E. Brennan,Marilyn Walker Friedman,Carl J. Pollard
Computer Science , 1994,
Abstract: In this paper we present a formalization of the centering approach to modeling attentional structure in discourse and use it as the basis for an algorithm to track discourse context and bind pronouns. As described in Grosz, Joshi and Weinstein (1986), the process of centering attention on entities in the discourse gives rise to the intersentential transitional states of continuing, retaining and shifting. We propose an extension to these states which handles some additional cases of multiple ambiguous pronouns. The algorithm has been implemented in an HPSG natural language system which serves as the interface to a database query application.
Pronouns in Ode Dialect: A Grammatical Analysis  [PDF]
Oluwole Samuel Akintoye
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.45060
Abstract: Much attention has been paid on the pronouns in the Yoruba language by the Yoruba scholars compared to the few works on the pronouns in the dialects of Yoruba. This paper contributes to the few works on the pronouns in the dialects of Yoruba. The paper considers the pronouns in Ode, a sub-dialect of Èkìtì, and discusses the similarities and differences observed between the pronouns in Yoruba language and Ode dialect. The paper applies a descriptive approach in its analysis.
Resolution of Difficult Pronouns Using the ROSS Method  [PDF]
Glenn R. Hofford
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: A new natural language understanding method for disambiguation of difficult pronouns is described. Difficult pronouns are those pronouns for which a level of world or domain knowledge is needed in order to perform anaphoral or other types of resolution. Resolution of difficult pronouns may in some cases require a prior step involving the application of inference to a situation that is represented by the natural language text. A general method is described: it performs entity resolution and pronoun resolution. An extension to the general pronoun resolution method performs inference as an embedded commonsense reasoning method. The general method and the embedded method utilize features of the ROSS representational scheme; in particular the methods use ROSS ontology classes and the ROSS situation model. The overall method is a working solution that solves the following Winograd schemas: a) trophy and suitcase, b) person lifts person, c) person pays detective, and d) councilmen and demonstrators.
Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet
Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12) as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6). Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.
On some peculiarities displayed by personal pronouns in the anaphorization process  [PDF]
Ivi? Milka
Ju?noslovenski Filolog , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/jfi0359001i
Abstract: The central concern of this article is to bring into sharper focus some problems related to personal pronouns and anaphorization that need to receive their proper share of attention in Slavic grammatical descriptions. The topics examined in the article include: (1) the identification of factors preventing the occurrence of the anaphoric pronoun in a given discourse; (2) the answer to the question why Russian and Polish anaphoric pronominal expressions which substitute for the predicatively used noun do not have analogous equivalents in Modern Standard Serbian; (3) the fact that Slavic languages differ with regard to how they treat anaphoric personal pronouns in relation to "null" anaphor; (4) the phenomenon of the so-called bound I unbound anaphor; (5) the necessity to admit that the anaphorically used Serbian word jedan functions as a discrete marker for the 'indefiniteness' category; (6) the need to get still more insights into what governs the gender agreement in cases when the noun's gender semantics and its morphological gender type are noncongruent. .
Possessive Pronouns as Determiners in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation  [PDF]
Francis Bond,Kentaro Ogura,Satoru Ikehara
Computer Science , 1996,
Abstract: Possessive pronouns are used as determiners in English when no equivalent would be used in a Japanese sentence with the same meaning. This paper proposes a heuristic method of generating such possessive pronouns even when there is no equivalent in the Japanese. The method uses information about the use of possessive pronouns in English treated as a lexical property of nouns, in addition to contextual information about noun phrase referentiality and the subject and main verb of the sentence that the noun phrase appears in. The proposed method has been implemented in NTT Communication Science Laboratories' Japanese-to-English machine translation system ALT-J/E. In a test set of 6,200 sentences, the proposed method increased the number of noun phrases with appropriate possessive pronouns generated, by 263 to 609, at the cost of generating 83 noun phrases with inappropriate possessive pronouns.
The stressed synovium
Georg Schett, Makiyeh Tohidast-Akrad, Günter Steiner, Josef Smolen
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/ar144
Abstract: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are confronted with a multitude of stressful events during the course of their disease. Flares of disease activity with joint pain, swelling and stiffness, progressive damage and subsequent loss of function are hallmarks of RA. These features of chronic inflammation and destruction lead to a harassed and stressed rather than a relaxed life for the patients and their joints. At the microscopic and molecular level of disease, this 'stressful life' must have its counterparts. Understanding the cellular integration of stressful stimuli is of increasing importance and ought to be undertaken in these days of molecular medicine, because it might constitute at least part of the underlying pathogenetic events and thus permit new insights.Under normal physiological conditions the synovial space is one of the most heavily pressured areas in the body. In diseases such as inflammatory arthritis the local conditions can deteriaorate. Several classical stress factors are present in the synovial cavity and these stimuli are likely to influence the function of the cells in the synovial membrane. As in the walls of blood vessels, the synovial cavity is exposed to a high degree of mechanical stress under both normal and pathological conditions. Besides mechanical stress due to the load of body weight, which affects predominantly the joint cartilage, mechanical stress following shear forces is also present. In particular the motion of the synovial fluid during exercise induces shear forces whose biophysics has been studied in detail [1,2]. However, because cells can transduce mechanical stress into biochemical signals, numerous cellular functions can be influenced by the presence of mechanical stress.The biochemical effects of shear stress on the synovial membrane were not studied in detail until recently, and the signal transduction pathways, which are activated, are largely unknown. Mechanical stress has been demonstrated to induce synovial hyp
Compressive and Flexural Behaviour of Unstressed Concrete Substructure in Cassava Effluent Contaminated Soils  [PDF]
Adekunle P. Adewuyi, Oluwole A. Olaniyi, Oladipupo S. Olafusi, Ademola S. Fawumi
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2015.52024
Abstract: Concrete research is gradually shifting from the conventional strength-based approach to durability-centred in the past decade. Durability is the measure of the robustness of constructed facilities against deterioration tendencies. The rate of deterioration is affected by the loading condition, and more importantly the physical and chemical nature of the host environments. This paper reports the experimental investigation of unstressed concrete substructure in the natural (uncontaminated) and cassava’s hydrocyanide effluent-polluted soils on the compressive and flexural strengths of buried concrete specimens for a maximum of 84 days. The compressive strengths of the cubes were tested every 7 days until the 84th day, while the beams were only subjected to third-point loading flexural tests at age 84 days. The compressive strength of concrete specimens in the two soil environments increased, though the trend was lower in the polluted soil. The strength reduced by 2.50% to 9.47% between the 7th and 28th days, but steadily between the 28th and 84th days with strength loss of 9.95% (COV = 2.64%). The load-deflection curves were quadratic for the beams in the two geo-environments. The beams in cyanide-polluted soil lost 34.5% of its flexural stiffness, while its loss of load-carrying capacities at the first crack and ultimate failure was 15.8% and 20% respectively. Higher degree of deterioration is certain for loaded concrete substructures in similar conditions. Hence, prior knowledge of soil chemistry is crucial to determining suitable concrete grade and nominal cover for durable substructural elements.
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