Abstract:
Exponential random graphs are used extensively in the sociology literature. This model seeks to incorporate in random graphs the notion of reciprocity, that is, the larger than expected number of triangles and other small subgraphs. Sampling from these distributions is crucial for parameter estimation hypothesis testing, and more generally for understanding basic features of the network model itself. In practice sampling is typically carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo, in particular either the Glauber dynamics or the Metropolis-Hasting procedure. In this paper we characterize the high and low temperature regimes of the exponential random graph model. We establish that in the high temperature regime the mixing time of the Glauber dynamics is $\Theta(n^2 \log n)$, where $n$ is the number of vertices in the graph; in contrast, we show that in the low temperature regime the mixing is exponentially slow for any local Markov chain. Our results, moreover, give a rigorous basis for criticisms made of such models. In the high temperature regime, where sampling with MCMC is possible, we show that any finite collection of edges are asymptotically independent; thus, the model does not possess the desired reciprocity property, and is not appreciably different from the Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi random graph.

Abstract:
Several inequalities are proved for the mixing time of discrete-time quantum walks on finite graphs. The mixing time is defined differently than in Aharonov, Ambainis, Kempe and Vazirani (2001) and it is found that for particular examples of walks on a cycle, a hypercube and a complete graph, quantum walks provide no speed-up in mixing over the classical counterparts. In addition, non-unitary quantum walks (i.e., walks with decoherence) are considered and a criterion for their convergence to the unique stationary distribution is derived.

Abstract:
We study the stochastic Ising model on finite graphs with n vertices and bounded degree and analyze the effect of boundary conditions on the mixing time. We show that for all low enough temperatures, the spectral gap of the dynamics with (+)-boundary condition on a class of nonamenable graphs, is strictly positive uniformly in n. This implies that the mixing time grows at most linearly in n. The class of graphs we consider includes hyperbolic graphs with sufficiently high degree, where the best upper bound on the mixing time of the free boundary dynamics is polynomial in n, with exponent growing with the inverse temperature. In addition, we construct a graph in this class, for which the mixing time in the free boundary case is exponentially large in n. This provides a first example where the mixing time jumps from exponential to linear in n while passing from free to (+)-boundary condition. These results extend the analysis of Martinelli, Sinclair and Weitz to a wider class of nonamenable graphs.

Abstract:
Many real networks are equipped with short diameters, high clustering, and power-law degree distributions. With preferential attachment and network growth, the model by Barabasi and Albert simultaneously reproduces these properties, and geographical versions of growing networks have also been analyzed. However, nongrowing networks with intrinsic vertex weights often explain these features more plausibly, since not all networks are really growing. We propose a geographical nongrowing network model with vertex weights. Edges are assumed to form when a pair of vertices are spatially close and/or have large summed weights. Our model generalizes a variety of models as well as the original nongeographical counterpart, such as the unit disk graph, the Boolean model, and the gravity model, which appear in the contexts of percolation, wire communication, mechanical and solid physics, sociology, economy, and marketing. In appropriate configurations, our model produces small-world networks with power-law degree distributions. We also discuss the relation between geography, power laws in networks, and power laws in general quantities serving as vertex weights.

Abstract:
Let $\mathcal{C}_1$ be the largest component of the Erd\H{o}s--R\'{e}nyi random graph $\mathcal{G}(n,p)$. The mixing time of random walk on $\mathcal {C}_1$ in the strictly supercritical regime, $p=c/n$ with fixed $c>1$, was shown to have order $\log^2n$ by Fountoulakis and Reed, and independently by Benjamini, Kozma and Wormald. In the critical window, $p=(1+\varepsilon)/n$ where $\lambda=\varepsilon^3n$ is bounded, Nachmias and Peres proved that the mixing time on $\mathcal{C}_1$ is of order $n$. However, it was unclear how to interpolate between these results, and estimate the mixing time as the giant component emerges from the critical window. Indeed, even the asymptotics of the diameter of $\mathcal{C}_1$ in this regime were only recently obtained by Riordan and Wormald, as well as the present authors and Kim. In this paper, we show that for $p=(1+\varepsilon)/n$ with $\lambda=\varepsilon^3n\to\infty$ and $\lambda=o(n)$, the mixing time on $\mathcal{C}_1$ is with high probability of order $(n/\lambda)\log^2\lambda$. In addition, we show that this is the order of the largest mixing time over all components, both in the slightly supercritical and in the slightly subcritical regime [i.e., $p=(1-\varepsilon)/n$ with $\lambda$ as above].

Abstract:
Suppose that $\CG$ is a finite, connected graph and $X$ is a lazy random walk on $\CG$. The lamplighter chain $X^\diamond$ associated with $X$ is the random walk on the wreath product $\CG^\diamond = \Z_2 \wr \CG$, the graph whose vertices consist of pairs $(f,x)$ where $f$ is a labeling of the vertices of $\CG$ by elements of $\Z_2$ and $x$ is a vertex in $\CG$. There is an edge between $(f,x)$ and $(g,y)$ in $\CG^\diamond$ if and only if $x$ is adjacent to $y$ in $\CG$ and $f(z) = g(z)$ for all $z \neq x,y$. In each step, $X^\diamond$ moves from a configuration $(f,x)$ by updating $x$ to $y$ using the transition rule of $X$ and then sampling both $f(x)$ and $f(y)$ according to the uniform distribution on $\Z_2$; $f(z)$ for $z \neq x,y$ remains unchanged. We give matching upper and lower bounds on the uniform mixing time of $X^\diamond$ provided $\CG$ satisfies mild hypotheses. In particular, when $\CG$ is the hypercube $\Z_2^d$, we show that the uniform mixing time of $X^\diamond$ is $\Theta(d 2^d)$. More generally, we show that when $\CG$ is a torus $\Z_n^d$ for $d \geq 3$, the uniform mixing time of $X^\diamond$ is $\Theta(d n^d)$ uniformly in $n$ and $d$. A critical ingredient for our proof is a concentration estimate for the local time of random walk in a subset of vertices.

Abstract:
Let $\mathcal{C}_1$ denote the largest connected component of the critical Erd\H{o}s--R\'{e}nyi random graph $G(n,{\frac{1}{n}})$. We show that, typically, the diameter of $\mathcal{C}_1$ is of order $n^{1/3}$ and the mixing time of the lazy simple random walk on $\mathcal{C}_1$ is of order $n$. The latter answers a question of Benjamini, Kozma and Wormald. These results extend to clusters of size $n^{2/3}$ of $p$-bond percolation on any $d$-regular $n$-vertex graph where such clusters exist, provided that $p(d-1)\le1+O(n^{-1/3})$.

Abstract:
Benjamini, Shinkar, and Tsur stated the following conjecture on the acquaintance time: asymptotically almost surely $AC(G) \le p^{-1} \log^{O(1)} n$ for a random graph $G \in G(n,p)$, provided that $G$ is connected. Recently, Kinnersley, Mitsche, and the second author made a major step towards this conjecture by showing that asymptotically almost surely $AC(G) = O(\log n / p)$, provided that $G$ has a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, we finish the task by showing that the conjecture holds in the strongest possible sense, that is, it holds right at the time the random graph process creates a connected graph. Moreover, we generalize and investigate the problem for random hypergraphs.

Abstract:
Suppose that G and H are finite, connected graphs, G regular, X is a lazy random walk on G and Z is a reversible ergodic Markov chain on H. The generalized lamplighter chain X* associated with X and Z is the random walk on the wreath product H\wr G, the graph whose vertices consist of pairs (f,x) where f=(f_v)_{v\in V(G)} is a labeling of the vertices of G by elements of H and x is a vertex in G. In each step, X* moves from a configuration (f,x) by updating x to y using the transition rule of X and then independently updating both f_x and f_y according to the transition probabilities on H; f_z for z different of x,y remains unchanged. We estimate the mixing time of X* in terms of the parameters of H and G. Further, we show that the relaxation time of X* is the same order as the maximal expected hitting time of G plus |G| times the relaxation time of the chain on H.

Abstract:
The switch chain is a well-known Markov chain for sampling directed graphs with a given degree sequence. While not ergodic in general, we show that it is ergodic for regular degree sequences. We then prove that the switch chain is rapidly mixing for regular directed graphs of degree d, where d is any positive integer-valued function of the number of vertices. We bound the mixing time by bounding the eigenvalues of the chain. A new result is presented and applied to bound the smallest (most negative) eigenvalue. This result is a modification of a lemma by Diaconis and Stroock, and by using it we avoid working with a lazy chain. A multicommodity flow argument is used to bound the second-largest eigenvalue of the chain. This argument is based on the analysis of a related Markov chain for undirected regular graphs by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, but with significant extension required.