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EDUCATING THE PEOPLE AS A DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHER AND CAMERA OPERATOR VIA OPEN EDUCATION SYSTEM STUDIES FROM TURKEY: Anadolu University Open Education Faculty Case  [PDF]
Huseyin ERYILMAZ
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2010,
Abstract: Today, Photography and visual arts are very important in our modern life. Especially for the mass communication, the visual images and visual arts have very big importance. In modern societies, people must have knowledge about the visual things, such as photographs, cartoons, drawings, typography, etc. Briefly, the people need education on visual literacy.In today’s world, most of the people in the world have a digital camera for photography or video image. But it is not possible to give people, visual literacy education in classic school system. But the camera users need a teaching medium for using their cameras effectively. So they are trying to use internet opportunities, some internet websites and pages as an information source. But as the well known problem, not all the websites give the correct learning or know-how on internet. There are a lot of mistakes and false information. Because of the reasons given above, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty is starting a new education system to educate people as a digital photographer and camera person in 2009. This program has very importance as a case study. The language of photography and digital technology is in English. Of course, not all the camera users understand English language. So, owing to this program, most of the camera users and especially people who is working as an operator in studios will learn a lot of things on photography, digital technology and camera systems. On the other hand, these people will learn about composition, visual image's history etc. Because of these reasons, this program is very important especially for developing countries. This paper will try to discuss this subject.
An Egocentric Look at Video Photographer Identity  [PDF]
Yedid Hoshen,Shmuel Peleg
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Egocentric cameras are being worn by an increasing number of users, among them many security forces worldwide. GoPro cameras already penetrated the mass market, reporting substantial increase in sales every year. As head-worn cameras do not capture the photographer, it may seem that the anonymity of the photographer is preserved even when the video is publicly distributed. We show that camera motion, as can be computed from the egocentric video, provides unique identity information. The photographer can be reliably recognized from a few seconds of video captured when walking. The proposed method achieves more than 90% recognition accuracy in cases where the random success rate is only 3%. Applications can include theft prevention by locking the camera when not worn by its rightful owner. Searching video sharing services (e.g. YouTube) for egocentric videos shot by a specific photographer may also become possible. An important message in this paper is that photographers should be aware that sharing egocentric video will compromise their anonymity, even when their face is not visible.
Anonymizing Graphs  [PDF]
Tomas Feder,Shubha U. Nabar,Evimaria Terzi
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Motivated by recently discovered privacy attacks on social networks, we study the problem of anonymizing the underlying graph of interactions in a social network. We call a graph (k,l)-anonymous if for every node in the graph there exist at least k other nodes that share at least l of its neighbors. We consider two combinatorial problems arising from this notion of anonymity in graphs. More specifically, given an input graph we ask for the minimum number of edges to be added so that the graph becomes (k,l)-anonymous. We define two variants of this minimization problem and study their properties. We show that for certain values of k and l the problems are polynomial-time solvable, while for others they become NP-hard. Approximation algorithms for the latter cases are also given.
Anonymizing Unstructured Data  [PDF]
Rajeev Motwani,Shubha U. Nabar
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: In this paper we consider the problem of anonymizing datasets in which each individual is associated with a set of items that constitute private information about the individual. Illustrative datasets include market-basket datasets and search engine query logs. We formalize the notion of k-anonymity for set-valued data as a variant of the k-anonymity model for traditional relational datasets. We define an optimization problem that arises from this definition of anonymity and provide O(klogk) and O(1)-approximation algorithms for the same. We demonstrate applicability of our algorithms to the America Online query log dataset.
Making sense of a world of clicks  [PDF]
Ulrich Mohrhoff
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: In a recent article O. Ulfbeck and A. Bohr (Foundations of Physics 31, 757, 2001) have stressed the genuine fortuitousness of detector clicks, which has also been pointed out, in different terms, by the present author (American Journal of Physics 68, 728, 2000). In spite of this basic agreement, the present article raises objections to the presuppositions and conclusions of Ulfbeck and Bohr, in particular their rejection of the terminology of indefinite variables, their identification of reality with "the world of experience," their identification of experience with what takes place "on the spacetime scene," and the claim that their interpretation of quantum mechanics is "entirely liberated" from classical notions. An alternative way of making sense of a world of uncaused clicks is presented. This does not invoke experience but deals with a free-standing reality, is not fettered by classical conceptions of space and time but introduces adequate ways of thinking about the spatiotemporal aspects of the quantum world, and does not reject indefinite variables but clarifies the implications of their existence.
The acquisition of clicks by Xhosa-speaking children  [cached]
Sandile Gxilishe
Per Linguam : A Journal of Language Learning , 2011, DOI: 10.5785/20-2-81
Abstract: The article deals with the order of emergence of click consonants and the nature of click inventory. It reveals the course of development and differentiation of a phonological repertoire of a type different from those studied in depth to date. The sample consists of 10 children, three males and seven females between 1:0 and 3 years old. The study shows ample evidence of the extensive use of question and prompting routines directed at these Xhosa-speaking children and explains why these children learn these clicks so early despite how marked they are. Results describe the order of acquisition; the appearance of all basic clicks; the tempo between 1:7 and 2:0 years; the period of occurrence of a spurt; and the development of voiceless to voiced and nasalized clicks.
Anonymizing Social Graphs via Uncertainty Semantics  [PDF]
Hiep H. Nguyen,Abdessamad Imine,Micha?l Rusinowitch
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Rather than anonymizing social graphs by generalizing them to super nodes/edges or adding/removing nodes and edges to satisfy given privacy parameters, recent methods exploit the semantics of uncertain graphs to achieve privacy protection of participating entities and their relationship. These techniques anonymize a deterministic graph by converting it into an uncertain form. In this paper, we propose a generalized obfuscation model based on uncertain adjacency matrices that keep expected node degrees equal to those in the unanonymized graph. We analyze two recently proposed schemes and show their fitting into the model. We also point out disadvantages in each method and present several elegant techniques to fill the gap between them. Finally, to support fair comparisons, we develop a new tradeoff quantifying framework by leveraging the concept of incorrectness in location privacy research. Experiments on large social graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of our schemes.
Muller's ratchet clicks in finite time  [PDF]
Julien Audiffren,Etienne Pardoux
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.spa.2013.02.008,
Abstract: We consider the accumulation of deleterious mutations in an asexual population, a phenomenon known as Muller's ratchet, using the continuous time model proposed in Etheridge et all. \cite{epw}. We show that for any parameter $\lambda>0$ (the rate at which mutations occur), for any $\alpha>0$ (the toxicity of the mutations) and for any size $N>0$ of the population, the ratchet clicks a.s. in finite time. That is to say the minimum number of deleterious mutations in the population goes to infinity a.s.
Optimization and Security of Continuous Anonymizing Data Streams  [PDF]
S. Nasira Tabassum
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The characteristic of data stream is that it has a huge size and its data change continually, which needs to be responded quickly, since the times of query is limited. The continuous query and data stream approximate query model are introduced in this paper. Then, the query optimization of data stream and traditional database are compared such as k-anonymity methods, are designed for static data sets. As such, they cannot be applied to streaming data which are continuous, transient, and usually unbounded. Moreover, in streaming applications, there is a need to offer strong guarantees on the maximum allowed delay between incoming data and the corresponding anonymized output. Continuously Anonymizing Streaming data via adaptive cLustEring (CASTLE), an efficient and effective algorithm w.r.t. the quality of the data, is a cluster-based scheme that anonymizes data streams on-the-fly and, at the same time, ensures the freshness of the data. CASTLE is also extended to handle l-diversity. Finally, we study the optimization and security techniques of data streams using selective security encryption and compression to improve the efficiency of the CASTLE algorithm.
Mesh Technique for Nymble Architecture Sustaining - Secrecy and Security in Anonymizing Networks  [PDF]
J.Praveen Kumar,B.Shyam Kumar
International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing , 2013,
Abstract: Anonymizing networks such as Tor allow users to access Internet services privately by using a series of routers to hide the client’s IP address from the server. The success of such networks, however, hasbeen limited by users employing this secrecy for abusive purposes such as defacing popular websites. Website administrators routinely rely on IP-address blocking for disabling access to misbehaving users, but blocking IP addresses is not practical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing network. As a result, administrators block all known exit nodes of anonymizing networks, denying secrecy access to misbehaving and behaving users alike. To address this problem, present Nymble, a system in which servers can “blacklist”misbehaving users, thereby blocking users without compromising their anonymity. Our system is thus agnostic to different servers’ definitions of misbehavior servers can blacklist user’s .by using of Mesh technique. Which has been completely blocked by several services because of users who abuse their secrecy and providing security with MD5 algorithm
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