Abstract:
It has been conjectured that for knots $K$ and $K'$ in $S^3$, $w(K#K')= w(K)+w(K')-2$. Scharlemann and Thompson have proposed potential counterexamples to this conjecture. For every $n$, they proposed a family of knots ${K^n_i}$ for which they conjectured that $w(B^n#K^n_i)=w(K^n_i)$ where $B^n$ is a bridge number $n$ knot. We show that for $n>2$ none of the knots in ${K^n_i}$ produces such counterexamples.

Abstract:
To each knot $K\subset S^3$ one can associated its knot Floer homology $\hat{HFK}(K)$, a finitely generated bigraded abelian group. In general, the nonzero ranks of these homology groups lie on a finite number of slope one lines with respect to the bigrading. The width of the homology is, in essence, the largest horizontal distance between two such lines. Also, for each diagram $D$ of $K$ there is an associated Turaev surface, and the Turaev genus is the minimum genus of all Turaev surfaces for $K$. We show that the width of knot Floer homology is bounded by Turaev genus plus one. Skein relations for genus of the Turaev surface and width of a complex that generates knot Floer homology are given.

Abstract:
In the paper we prove the conjecture by Alexander Zupan that $w(K) \geqslant n^2w(J)$ where w denote the width and $K$ and $J$ are satellite knot and its companion with winding number $n$. Also we proved that for satellite knot with braid pattern, the equality holds.

Abstract:
Scharlemann and Schultens have shown that for any pair of knots K_1 and K_2, w(K_1 # K_2) is greater than or equal to max{w(K_1),w(K_2)}. Scharlemann and Thompson have given a scheme for possible examples where equality holds. Using results of Scharlemann-Schultens, Rieck-Sedgwick and Thompson, it is shown that for K the connected sum of mp-small knots and K' any non-trivial knot, w(K # K')>w(K).

Abstract:
In the paper, the dynamical additivity of bi-stochastic quantum operations is characterized and the strong dynamical additivity is obtained under some restrictions.

Abstract:
We study the formation of knots on a macroscopic ball-chain, which is shaken on a horizontal plate at 12 times the acceleration of gravity. We find that above a certain critical length, the knotting probability is independent of chain length, while the time to shake out a knot increases rapidly with chain length. The probability if finding a knot after a certain time is the result of the balance of these two processes. In particular, the knotting probability tends to a constant for long chains.

Abstract:
Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat) is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

Abstract:
It is known that the additivity conjecture of Holevo capacity, output minimum entoropy, and the entanglement of formation (EoF), are equivalent with each other. Among them, the output minimum entropy is simplest, and hence many researchers are focusing on this quantity. Here, we suggest yet another entanglement measure, whose strong superadditivity and additivity are equivalent to the additivity of the quantities mentioned above. This quantity is as simple as the output minimum entropy, and in existing proofs of additivity conjecture of the output minimum entropy for the specific examples, they are essentially proving the strong superadditivity of this quantity.

Abstract:
It is shown that for real finite dimensional Hilbert spaces the additivity property of the minimum output entropy for quantum channels is always true.