Abstract:
In this paper we state an analog of Calabi's conjecture proved by Yau. The difference with the classical case is that we propose deformation of the complex structure, whereas the complex Monge--Amp\`{e}re equation describes deformation of the K\"{a}hler (symplectic) structure.

Abstract:
I construct some smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds in characteristic two and three that do not lift to characteristic zero. These threefolds are pencils of supersingular K3-surfaces. The construction depends on Moret-Bailly's pencil of abelian surfaces and Katsura's analysis of generalized Kummer surfaces. The threefold in characteristic two turns out to be nonrigid.

Abstract:
We consider certain $K3$-fibered Calabi--Yau threefolds. One class of such Calabi--Yau threefolds are constructed by Hunt and Schimmrigk using twist maps. They are realized in weighted projective spaces as orbifolds of hypersurfaces. Our main goal of this paper is to investigate arithmetic properties of these Calabi--Yau threefolds. We also consider deformations of our Calabi--Yau threefolds, and we study the variation of the zeta-functions using $p$-adic rigid cohomology theory.

Abstract:
We calculate the D-brane superpotentials for two Calabi-Yau manifolds with three deformations by the generalized hypergeometric GKZ systems, which give rise to the flux superpotentials $\mathcal{W}_{GVW}$ of the dual F-theory compactification on the relevant Calabi-Yau fourfolds in the weak decoupling limit. We also compute the Ooguri-Vafa invariants from A-model expansion with mirror symmetry, which are related to the open Gromov-Witten invariants.

Abstract:
Only two ways to construct non-liftable Calabi-Yau threefolds are currently known, one example by Hirokado and one method of Schr\"oer. This article computes some cohomological invariants of these examples of non-liftable Calabi-Yau threefolds, in particular it computes their mini-versal deformations. One conclusion is that their mixed characteristic mini-versal deformation spaces are actually smooth over the characteristic $p$ base field. Furthermore, a new family, constructed in the spirit of Schr\"oer, is introduced and the same calculations are performed for it.

Abstract:
In this work we construct an analytically completely integrable Hamiltonian system which is canonically associated to any family of Calabi-Yau threefolds. The base of this system is a moduli space of gauged Calabi-Yaus in the family, and the fibers are Deligne cohomology groups (or intermediate Jacobians) of the threefolds. This system has several interesting properties: the multivalued sections obtained as Abel-Jacobi images, or ``normal functions'', of a family of curves on the generic variety of the family, are always Lagrangian; the natural affine coordinates on the base, which are used in the mirror correspondence, arise as action variables for the integrable system; and the Yukawa cubic, expressing the infinitesimal variation of Hodge structure in the family, is essentially equivalent to the symplectic structure on the total space.

Abstract:
We shall develop a theory of multi-pointed non-commutative deformations of a simple collection in an abelian category, and construct relative exceptional objects and relative spherical objects in some cases. This is inspired by a work by Donovan and Wemyss.

Abstract:
A primitive Calabi-Yau threefold is a non-singular Calabi-Yau threefold which cannot be written as a crepant resolution of a singular fibre of a degeneration of Calabi-Yau threefolds. These should be thought as the most basic Calabi-Yau manifolds; all others should arise through degenerations of these. This paper first continues the study of smoothability of Calabi-Yau threefolds with canonical singularities begun in the author's previous paper, ``Deforming Calabi-Yau Threefolds.'' (alg-geom 9506022). If X' is a non-singular Calabi-Yau threefold, and f:X'->X is a contraction of a divisor to a curve, we obtain results on when X is smoothable. We then discuss applications of this result to the classification of primitive Calabi-Yau threefolds. Combining the deformation theoretic results of this paper with those of ``Deforming Calabi-Yau Threefolds,'' we obtain strong restrictions on the class of primitive Calabi-Yau threefolds. We also speculate on how such work might yield results on connecting together all moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds.

Abstract:
This paper first generalises the Bogomolov-Tian-Todorov unobstructedness theorem to the case of Calabi-Yau threefolds with canonical singularities. The deformation space of such a Calabi-Yau threefold is no longer smooth, but the general principle is that the obstructions to deforming such a threefold are precisely the obstructions to deforming the singularities of the threefold. Secondly, these results are applied to smoothing singular Calabi-Yau threefolds with crepant resolutions. Any such Calabi-Yau threefold with isolated complete intersection singularities which are not ordinary double points is smoothable. A Calabi-Yau threefold with non-complete intersection isolated singularities is proved to be smoothable under much stronger hypotheses.

Abstract:
The paper [9] by Bocklandt, Schedler and Wemyss considers path algebras with relations given by the higher derivations of a superpotential, giving a condition for such an algebra to be Calabi-Yau. In this paper we extend these results, giving a condition for a PBW deformation of a Calabi-Yau, Koszul path algebra with relations given by a superpotential to have relations given by a superpotential, and proving these are Calabi-Yau in certain cases. We apply our methods to symplectic reflection algebras, where we show that every symplectic reflection algebra is Morita equivalent to a path algebra whose relations are given by the higher derivations of an inhomogeneous superpotential. In particular we show these are Calabi-Yau regardless of the deformation parameter. Also, for G a finite subgroup of GL_2(C) not contained in SL_2(C), we consider PBW deformations of a path algebra with relations which is Morita equivalent to C[x,y] \rtimes G. We show there are no nontrivial PBW deformations when G is a small subgroup.