Abstract:
A new approach to probability theory based on quantum mechanical and Lie algebraic ideas is proposed and developed. The underlying fact is the observation that the coherent states of the Heisenberg-Weyl, $su(2)$, $su(r+1)$, $su(1,1)$ and $su(r,1)$ algebras in certain symmetric (bosonic) representations give the ``probability amplitudes'' (or the ``square roots'') of the well-known Poisson, binomial, multinomial, negative binomial and negative multinomial distributions in probability theory. New probability distributions are derived based on coherent states of the classical algebras $B_r$, $C_r$ and $D_r$ in symmetric representations. These new probability distributions are simple generalisation of the multinomial distributions with some added new features reflecting the quantum and Lie algebraic construction. As byproducts, simple proofs and interpretation of addition theorems of Hermite polynomials are obtained from the `coordinate' representation of the (negative) multinomial states. In other words, these addition theorems are higher rank counterparts of the well-known generating function of Hermite polynomials, which is essentially the `coordinate' representation of the ordinary (Heisenberg-Weyl) coherent state.

Abstract:
We show that the well-known negative binomial states of the radiation field and their excitations are nonlinear coherent states. Excited nonlinear coherent state are still nonlinear coherent states with different nonlinear functions. We finally give exponential form of the nonlinear coherent states and remark that the binomial states are not nonlinear coherent states.

Abstract:
We show that the $N$-photon generalized binomial states of electromagnetic field may be put in a bijective mapping with the coherent atomic states of $N$ two-level atoms. We exploit this correspondence to simply obtain both known and new properties of the $N$-photon generalized binomial states. In particular, an over-complete basis of these binomial states and an orthonormal basis are obtained. Finally, the squeezing properties of generalized binomial state are analyzed.

Abstract:
A family of generalized binomial probability distributions attached to Landau levels on the Riemann sphere is introduced by constructing a kind of generalized coherent states. Their main statistical parameters are obtained explicitly. As an application, photon number statistics related to coherent states under consideration are discussed.

Abstract:
We study the nonclassical properties and algebraic characteristics of the negative binomial states introduced by Barnett recently. The ladder operator formalism and displacement operator formalism of the negative binomial states are found and the algebra involved turns out to be the SU(1,1) Lie algebra via the generalized Holstein-Primarkoff realization. These states are essentially Peremolov's SU(1,1) coherent states. We reveal their connection with the geometric states and find that they are excited geometric states. As intermediate states, they interpolate between the number states and geometric states. We also point out that they can be recognized as the nonlinear coherent states. Their nonclassical properties, such as sub-Poissonian distribution and squeezing effect are discussed. The quasiprobability distributions in phase space, namely the Q and Wigner functions, are studied in detail. We also propose two methods of generation of the negative binomial states.

Abstract:
Using the eigenvalue definition of binomial states we construct new intermediate number-coherent states which reduce to number and coherent states in two different limits. We reveal the connection of these intermediate states with photon-added coherent states and investigate their non-classical properties and quasi-probability distributions in detail. It is of interest to note that these new states, which interpolate between coherent states and number states, neither of which exhibit squeezing, are nevertheless squeezed states. A scheme to produce these states is proposed. We also study the interaction of these states with atomic systems in the framework of the two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model, and describe the response of the atomic system as it varies between the pure Rabi oscillation and the collapse-revival mode and investigate field observables such as photon number distribution, entropy and the Q-function.

Abstract:
In this article, we propose two new quantum field states, displaced binomial state and displaced negative binomial state. Their photon number distributions and sub-Poissonian properties are discussed. The results show that the displaced binomial state is a kind of intermediate quantum state between the coherent state and displaced number state and it may be sub-Poissonian and super-Poissonian at different parameters. The displaced negative binomial state is always super-Poissonian and is an intermediate state between coherent state and displaced Sussking-Glogower phased state. Finally, we study the dynamical evolution of atomic population inversion in the intensity-dependent interaction between these two states and two-level atoms.

Abstract:
Using the coherent state representation of Wigner operator and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, the Wigner functions of the even and odd binomial states (EOBSs) are obtained. The physical meaning of the Wigner functions for the EOBSs is given by means of their marginal distributions. Moreover, the tomograms of the EOBSs are calculated by virtue of intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics.

Abstract:
We introduce excited binomial states and excited negative binomial states of the radiation field by repeated application of the photon creation operator on binomial states and negative binomial states. They reduce to Fock states and excited coherent states in certain limits and can be viewed as intermediate states between Fock states and coherent states. We find that both the excited binomial states and excited negative binomial states can be exactly normalized in terms of hypergeometric functions. Base on this interesting character, some of the statistical properties are discussed.

Abstract:
`Hypergeometric states', which are a one-parameter generalization of binomial states of the single-mode quantized radiation field, are introduced and their nonclassical properties are investigated. Their limits to the binomial states and to the coherent and number states are studied. The ladder operator formulation of the hypergeometric states is found and the algebra involved turns out to be a one-parameter deformation of $su(2)$ algebra. These states exhibit highly nonclassical properties, like sub-Poissonian character, antibunching and squeezing effects. The quasiprobability distributions in phase space, namely the $Q$ and the Wigner functions are studied in detail. These remarkable properties seem to suggest that the hypergeometric states deserve further attention from theoretical and applicational sides of quantum optics.