Abstract:
It is well known that there is a bijective correspondence between metric ribbon graphs and compact Riemann surfaces with meromorphic Strebel differentials. In this article, it is proved that Grothendieck's correspondence between dessins d'enfants and Belyi morphisms is a special case of this correspondence. For a metric ribbon graph with edge length 1, an algebraic curve over $\bar Q$ and a Strebel differential on it is constructed. It is also shown that the critical trajectories of the measured foliation that is determined by the Strebel differential recover the original metric ribbon graph. Conversely, for every Belyi morphism, a unique Strebel differential is constructed such that the critical leaves of the measured foliation it determines form a metric ribbon graph of edge length 1, which coincides with the corresponding dessin d'enfant.

Abstract:
We study conformal blocks (the space of correlation functions) over compact Riemann surfaces associated to vertex operator algebras which are the sum of highest weight modules for the underlying Virasoro algebra. Under the fairly general condition, for instance, $C_2$-finiteness, we prove that conformal blocks are of finite dimensional. This, in particular, shows the finiteness of conformal blocks for many well-known conformal field theories including WZNW model and the minimal model.

Abstract:
For a compact 3-manifold $M$ which is a circle bundle over a compact Riemann surface $\Sigma$ with even Euler number $e(M)$, and with a Riemannian metric compatible with the bundle projection, there exists a compact minimal surface $S$ in $M$. $S$ is embedded and is a section of the restriction of the bundle to the complement of a finite number of points in $\Sigma$.

Abstract:
An explicit canonical construction of monopole connections on non trivial U(1) bundles over Riemann surfaces of any genus is given. The class of monopole solutions depend on the conformal class of the given Riemann surface and a set of integer weights. The reduction of Seiberg-Witten 4-monopole equations to Riemann surfaces is performed. It is shown then that the monopole connections constructed are solutions to these equations.

Abstract:
We find an infinite set of eigenfunctions for the Laplacian with respect to a flat metric with conical singularities and acting on degree zero bundles over special Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one. These special surfaces correspond to Riemann period matrices satisfying a set of equations which lead to a number theoretical problem. It turns out that these surfaces precisely correspond to branched covering of the torus. This reflects in a Jacobian with a particular kind of complex multiplication.

Abstract:
For a function defined on an arbitrary subset of a Riemann surface, we give conditions which allow the function to be extended conformally. One folkloric consequence is that two common definitions of an analytic arc in ${\mathbb C}$ are equivalent. Key-words: analytic continuation; analytic arc.

Abstract:
We study a natural map from representations of a free group of rank g in GL(n,C), to holomorphic vector bundles of degree 0 over a compact Riemann surface X of genus g, associated with a Schottky uniformization of X. Maximally unstable flat bundles are shown to arise in this way. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for this map to be a submersion, when restricted to representations producing stable bundles. Using a generalized version of Riemann's bilinear relations, this condition is shown to be true on the subspace of unitary Schottky representations.

Abstract:
For an elliptic surface $q:Y \to \Sigma$, with prescribed singular fibres, Stefan Bauer proved directly via algebraic geometry that the stable bundles over $Y$, whose chern classes are pull backs from $\Sigma$, correspond to the stable (V-)bundles over $\Sigma$. We show, via a short proof in differential geometry, a generalisation to stable parabolic bundles. This uses extensions of Donaldson's deep result, giving the existence of Hermitian-Yang-Mills (or anti-self-dual) connections on stable parabolic bundles. In our cases these connections are flat and hence, correspond to representations of certain fundamental groups, which in turn are isomorphic, by Ue's work. To generalize Bauer's equivalence of the corresponding moduli spaces of stable bundles, we combine his arguments with Kronheimer & Mrowka's construction of the moduli spaces of stable parabolic bundles. Finally, we consider the pulling back of smooth parabolic bundles via $q$.

Abstract:
To any compact hyperbolic Riemann surface $X$, we associate a new type of automorphism group -- called its *commensurability automorphism group*, $ComAut(X)$. The members of $ComAut(X)$ arise from closed circuits, starting and ending at $X$, where the edges represent holomorphic covering maps amongst compact connected Riemann surfaces (and the vertices represent the covering surfaces). This group turns out to be the isotropy subgroup, at the point represented by $X$ (in $T_{\infty}$), for the action of the universal commensurability modular group on the universal direct limit of Teichm\"uller spaces, $T_{\infty}$. Now, each point of $T_{\infty}$ represents a complex structure on the universal hyperbolic solenoid. We notice that $ComAut(X)$ acts by holomorphic automorphisms on that complex solenoid. Interestingly, this action turns out to be ergodic (with respect to the natural measure on the solenoid) if and only if the Fuchsian group uniformizing $X$ is *arithmetic*. Furthermore, the action of the commensurability modular group, and of its isotropy subgroups, on some natural vector bundles over $T_{\infty}$, are studied by us.

Abstract:
We propose a new formulation for integrating over smooth curves and surfaces that are described by their closest point mappings. Our method is designed for curves and surfaces that are not defined by any explicit parameterization and is intended to be used in combination with level set techniques. However, contrary to the common practice with level set methods, the volume integrals derived from our formulation coincide exactly with the surface or line integrals that one wish to compute. We study various aspects of this formulation and provide a geometric interpretation of this formulation in terms of the singular values of the Jacobian matrix of the closest point mapping. Additionally, we extend the formulation - initially derived to integrate over manifolds of codimension one - to include integration along curves in three dimensions. Some numerical examples using very simple discretizations are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the formulation.