Abstract:
Linear erasure codes with local repairability are desirable for distributed data storage systems. An [n, k, d] code having all-symbol (r, \delta})-locality, denoted as (r, {\delta})a, is considered optimal if it also meets the minimum Hamming distance bound. The existing results on the existence and the construction of optimal (r, {\delta})a codes are limited to only the special case of {\delta} = 2, and to only two small regions within this special case, namely, m = 0 or m >= (v+{\delta}-1) > ({\delta}-1), where m = n mod (r+{\delta}-1) and v = k mod r. This paper investigates the existence conditions and presents deterministic constructive algorithms for optimal (r, {\delta})a codes with general r and {\delta}. First, a structure theorem is derived for general optimal (r, {\delta})a codes which helps illuminate some of their structure properties. Next, the entire problem space with arbitrary n, k, r and {\delta} is divided into eight different cases (regions) with regard to the specific relations of these parameters. For two cases, it is rigorously proved that no optimal (r, {\delta})a could exist. For four other cases the optimal (r, {\delta})a codes are shown to exist, deterministic constructions are proposed and the lower bound on the required field size for these algorithms to work is provided. Our new constructive algorithms not only cover more cases, but for the same cases where previous algorithms exist, the new constructions require a considerably smaller field, which translates to potentially lower computational complexity. Our findings substantially enriches the knowledge on (r, {\delta})a codes, leaving only two cases in which the existence of optimal codes are yet to be determined.

Abstract:
This paper aims to go beyond resilience into the study of security and local-repairability for distributed storage systems (DSS). Security and local-repairability are both important as features of an efficient storage system, and this paper aims to understand the trade-offs between resilience, security, and local-repairability in these systems. In particular, this paper first investigates security in the presence of colluding eavesdroppers, where eavesdroppers are assumed to work together in decoding stored information. Second, the paper focuses on coding schemes that enable optimal local repairs. It further brings these two concepts together, to develop locally repairable coding schemes for DSS that are secure against eavesdroppers. The main results of this paper include: a. An improved bound on the secrecy capacity for minimum storage regenerating codes, b. secure coding schemes that achieve the bound for some special cases, c. a new bound on minimum distance for locally repairable codes, d. code construction for locally repairable codes that attain the minimum distance bound, and e. repair-bandwidth-efficient locally repairable codes with and without security constraints.

Abstract:
In this paper we extend the notion of {\em locally repairable} codes to {\em secret sharing} schemes. The main problem that we consider is to find optimal ways to distribute shares of a secret among a set of storage-nodes (participants) such that the content of each node (share) can be recovered by using contents of only few other nodes, and at the same time the secret can be reconstructed by only some allowable subsets of nodes. As a special case, an eavesdropper observing some set of specific nodes (such as less than certain number of nodes) does not get any information. In other words, we propose to study a locally repairable distributed storage system that is secure against a {\em passive eavesdropper} that can observe some subsets of nodes. We provide a number of results related to such systems including upper-bounds and achievability results on the number of bits that can be securely stored with these constraints.

Abstract:
In large scale distributed storage systems (DSS) deployed in cloud computing, correlated failures resulting in simultaneous failure (or, unavailability) of blocks of nodes are common. In such scenarios, the stored data or a content of a failed node can only be reconstructed from the available live nodes belonging to available blocks. To analyze the resilience of the system against such block failures, this work introduces the framework of Block Failure Resilient (BFR) codes, wherein the data (e.g., file in DSS) can be decoded by reading out from a same number of codeword symbols (nodes) from each available blocks of the underlying codeword. Further, repairable BFR codes are introduced, wherein any codeword symbol in a failed block can be repaired by contacting to remaining blocks in the system. Motivated from regenerating codes, file size bounds for repairable BFR codes are derived, trade-off between per node storage and repair bandwidth is analyzed, and BFR-MSR and BFR-MBR points are derived. Explicit codes achieving these two operating points for a wide set of parameters are constructed by utilizing combinatorial designs, wherein the codewords of the underlying outer codes are distributed to BFR codeword symbols according to projective planes.

Abstract:
We introduce a new family of Fountain codes that are systematic and also have sparse parities. Given an input of $k$ symbols, our codes produce an unbounded number of output symbols, generating each parity independently by linearly combining a logarithmic number of randomly selected input symbols. The construction guarantees that for any $\epsilon>0$ accessing a random subset of $(1+\epsilon)k$ encoded symbols, asymptotically suffices to recover the $k$ input symbols with high probability. Our codes have the additional benefit of logarithmic locality: a single lost symbol can be repaired by accessing a subset of $O(\log k)$ of the remaining encoded symbols. This is a desired property for distributed storage systems where symbols are spread over a network of storage nodes. Beyond recovery upon loss, local reconstruction provides an efficient alternative for reading symbols that cannot be accessed directly. In our code, a logarithmic number of disjoint local groups is associated with each systematic symbol, allowing multiple parallel reads. Our main mathematical contribution involves analyzing the rank of sparse random matrices with specific structure over finite fields. We rely on establishing that a new family of sparse random bipartite graphs have perfect matchings with high probability.

Abstract:
In a {\em locally recoverable} or {\em repairable} code, any symbol of a codeword can be recovered by reading only a small (constant) number of other symbols. The notion of local recoverability is important in the area of distributed storage where a most frequent error-event is a single storage node failure (erasure). A common objective is to repair the node by downloading data from as few other storage node as possible. In this paper, we bound the minimum distance of a code in terms of its length, size and locality. Unlike previous bounds, our bound follows from a significantly simple analysis and depends on the size of the alphabet being used. It turns out that the binary Simplex codes satisfy our bound with equality; hence the Simplex codes are the first example of a optimal binary locally repairable code family. We also provide achievability results based on random coding and concatenated codes that are numerically verified to be close to our bounds.

Abstract:
We study a quantum analogue of locally decodable error-correcting codes. A q-query locally decodable quantum code encodes n classical bits in an m-qubit state, in such a way that each of the encoded bits can be recovered with high probability by a measurement on at most q qubits of the quantum code, even if a constant fraction of its qubits have been corrupted adversarially. We show that such a quantum code can be transformed into a classical q-query locally decodable code of the same length that can be decoded well on average (albeit with smaller success probability and noise-tolerance). This shows, roughly speaking, that q-query quantum codes are not significantly better than q-query classical codes, at least for constant or small q.

Abstract:
We consider the complexities of repair algorithms for locally repairable codes and propose a class of codes that repair single node failures using addition operations only, or codes with addition based repair. We construct two families of codes with addition based repair. The first family attains distance one less than the Singleton-like upper bound, while the second family attains the Singleton-like upper bound.

Abstract:
We continue the investigation of locally testable codes, i.e., error-correcting codes for whom membership of a given word in the code can be tested probabilistically by examining it in very few locations. We give two general results on local testability: First, motivated by the recently proposed notion of {\em robust} probabilistically checkable proofs, we introduce the notion of {\em robust} local testability of codes. We relate this notion to a product of codes introduced by Tanner, and show a very simple composition lemma for this notion. Next, we show that codes built by tensor products can be tested robustly and somewhat locally, by applying a variant of a test and proof technique introduced by Raz and Safra in the context of testing low-degree multivariate polynomials (which are a special case of tensor codes). Combining these two results gives us a generic construction of codes of inverse polynomial rate, that are testable with poly-logarithmically many queries. We note these locally testable tensor codes can be obtained from {\em any} linear error correcting code with good distance. Previous results on local testability, albeit much stronger quantitatively, rely heavily on algebraic properties of the underlying codes.

Abstract:
We initiate the study of quantum Locally Testable Codes (qLTCs). We provide a definition together with a simplification, denoted sLTCs, for the special case of stabilizer codes, together with some basic results using those definitions. The most crucial parameter of such codes is their soundness, $R(\delta)$, namely, the probability that a randomly chosen constraint is violated as a function of the distance of a word from the code ($\delta$, the relative distance from the code, is called the proximity). We then proceed to study limitations on qLTCs. In our first main result we prove a surprising, inherently quantum, property of sLTCs: for small values of proximity, the better the small-set expansion of the interaction graph of the constraints, the less sound the qLTC becomes. This phenomenon, which can be attributed to monogamy of entanglement, stands in sharp contrast to the classical setting. The complementary, more intuitive, result also holds: an upper bound on the soundness when the code is defined on poor small-set expanders (a bound which turns out to be far more difficult to show in the quantum case). Together we arrive at a quantum upper-bound on the soundness of stabilizer qLTCs set on any graph, which does not hold in the classical case. Many open questions are raised regarding what possible parameters are achievable for qLTCs. In the appendix we also define a quantum analogue of PCPs of proximity (PCPPs) and point out that the result of Ben-Sasson et. al. by which PCPPs imply LTCs with related parameters, carries over to the sLTCs. This creates a first link between qLTCs and quantum PCPs.