Abstract:
In this paper, we study the supports of measures in multiplicative free semigroups on the positive real line and on the unit circle. We provide formulas for the density of the absolutely continuous parts of measures in these semigroups. The descriptions rely on the characterizations of the images of the upper half-plane and the unit disc under certain subordination functions. These subordination functions are $\eta$-transforms of infinitely divisible measures with respect to multiplicative free convolution. The characterizations also help us study the regularity properties of these measures. One of the main results is that the number of components in the support of measures in the semigroups is a decreasing function of the semigroup parameter.

Abstract:
We consider a pair of probability measures $\mu,\nu$ on the unit circle such that $\Sigma_{\lambda}(\eta_{\nu}(z))=z/\eta_{\mu}(z)$. We prove that the same type of equation holds for any $t\geq 0$ when we replace $\nu$ by $\nu\boxtimes\lambda_t$ and $\mu$ by $\mathbb{M}_t(\mu)$, where $\lambda_t$ is the free multiplicative analogue of the normal distribution on the unit circle of $\mathbb{C}$ and $\mathbb{M}_t$ is the map defined by Arizmendi and Hasebe. These equations are a multiplicative analogue of equations studied by Belinschi and Nica. In order to achieve this result, we study infinite divisibility of the measures associated with subordination functions in multiplicative free Brownian motion and multiplicative free convolution semigroups. We use the modified $\mathcal{S}$-transform introduced by Raj Rao and Speicher to deal with the case that $\nu$ has mean zero. The same type of the result holds for convolutions on the positive real line. We also obtain some regularity properties for the free multiplicative analogue of the normal distributions.

Abstract:
Let $P$ be a symmetric generalised laplacian on $R^{2n+1}$. It is known that $P$ generates semigroups of measures $\mu_{t}$ on the Heisenberg group $H^{n}$ and $\nu_{t}$ on the Abelian group $R^{2n+1}$. Recall that the underlying manifold of the Heisenberg group is $R^{2n+1}$. Suppose that the negative defined function $\psi(\xi)=-\hat{P}(\xi)$ satisfies some weight conditions and $|D^{\alpha}\psi(\xi)| \leq c_{\alpha}\psi(\xi)(1+\|\xi\|)^{-|\alpha|}, \xi \in R^{2n+1}.$ We show that the semigroup $\mu_{t}$ is a kind of perturbation of the semigroup $\nu_{t}$. More precisely, we give pointwise estimates for the difference between the densities of $\mu_{t}$ and $\nu_{t}$ and we show that it is small with respect to $t$ and $x$. As a consequence we get a description of the asymptotic behaviour at origin of densities of a semigroup of measures which is analogon of the symmetrized gamma (gamma-variance) semigroup on the Heisenberg group.

Abstract:
We obtain a formula for the density of the free convolution of an arbitrary probability measure on the unit circle of $\mathbb{C}$ with the free multiplicative analogues of the normal distribution on the unit circle. This description relies on a characterization of the image of the unit disc under the subordination function, which also allows us to prove some regularity properties of the measures obtained in this way. As an application, we give a new proof for Biane's classic result on the densities of the free multiplicative analogue of the normal distributions. We obtain analogue results for probability measures on $\mathbb{R}^+$. Finally, we describe the density of the free multiplicative analogue of the normal distributions as an example and prove unimodality and some symmetry properties of these measures.

Abstract:
Semiuniform semigroups provide a natural setting for the convolution of generalized finite measures on semigroups. A semiuniform semigroup is said to be ambitable if each uniformly bounded uniformly equicontinuous set of functions on the semigroup is contained in an ambit. In the convolution algebras constructed over ambitable semigroups, topological centres have a tractable characterization.

Abstract:
Recently, Bercovici has introduced multiplicative convolutions based on Muraki's monotone independence and shown that these convolution of probability measures correspond to the composition of some function of their Cauchy transforms. We provide a new proof of this fact based on the combinatorics of moments. We also give a new characterisation of the probability measures that can be embedded into continuous monotone convolution semigroups of probability measures on the unit circle and briefly discuss a relation to Galton-Watson processes.

Abstract:
Convolution semigroups of states on a quantum group form the natural noncommutative analogue of convolution semigroups of probability measures on a locally compact group. Here we initiate a theory of weakly continuous convolution semigroups of functionals on a C*-bialgebra, the noncommutative counterpart of locally compact semigroup. On locally compact quantum groups we obtain a bijective correspondence between such convolution semigroups and a class of C_0-semigroups of maps which we characterise. On C*-bialgebras of discrete type we show that all weakly continuous convolution semigroups of states are automatically norm-continuous. As an application we deduce a known characterisation of continuous conditionally positive-definite Hermitian functions on a compact group.

Abstract:
We introduce a class of central symmetric infinitely divisible probability measures on compact Lie groups by lifting the characteristic exponent from the real line via the Casimir operator. The class includes Gauss, Laplace and stable-type measures. We find conditions for such a measure to have a smooth density and give examples. The Hunt semigroup and generator of convolution semigroups of measures are represented as pseudo-differential operators. For sufficiently regular convolution semigroups, the transition kernel has a tractable Fourier expansion and the density at the neutral element may be expressed as the trace of the Hunt semigroup. We compute the short time asymptotics of the density at the neutral element for the Cauchy distribution on the $d$-torus, on SU(2) and on SO(3), where we find markedly different behaviour than is the case for the usual heat kernel.

Abstract:
In this paper,the method of partial groupization is applied to the study of limit behavioursof probability measures on Abelian semigroups.First the existence of the limit for the i.i.d.random variable convolution power sequence is discussed,and a result of Kawada-Ito type oncompact Abelian semigroups is given.Then,a strong principle of Kloss convergence on com-pact Abelian semigroups is set up.This principle was once obtained by Maksimov on finitgroups and compact groups.

Abstract:
In this thesis we study convolutions that arise from noncommutative probability theory. We prove several regularity results for free convolutions, and for measures in partially defined one-parameter free convolution semigroups. We discuss connections between Boolean and free convolutions and, in the last chapter, we prove that any infinitely divisible probability measure with respect to monotonic additive or multiplicative convolution belongs to a one-parameter semigroup with respect to the corresponding convolution. Earlier versions of some of the results in this thesis have already been published, while some others have been submitted for publication. We have preserved almost entirely the specific format for PhD theses required by Indiana University. This adds several unnecessary pages to the document, but we wanted to preserve the specificity of the document as a PhD thesis at Indiana University.