Abstract:
What is the relation between spin squeezing and entanglement? To clarify this, we derive the full set of generalized spin squeezing inequalities for the detection of entanglement. These are inequalities for the mean values and variances of the collective angular momentum components J_k. They can be used for the experimental detection of entanglement in a system of spin-1/2 particles in which the spins cannot be individually addressed. We present various sets of inequalities that can detect all entangled states that can be detected based on the knowledge of: (i) the mean values and variances of J_k in three orthogonal directions, or (ii) the variances of J_k in three orthogonal directions, or (iii) the mean values of J_k^2 in three orthogonal directions or (iv) the mean values and variances of J_k in arbitrary directions. We compare our inequalities to known spin squeezing entanglement criteria and discuss to which extent spin squeezing is related to entanglement in the reduced two-qubit states. Finally, we apply our criteria for the detection of entanglement in spin models, showing that they can be used to detect bound entanglement in these systems.

Abstract:
By identifying non-local effects in systems of identical Bosonic qubits through correlations of their commuting observables, we show that entanglement is not necessary to violate certain squeezing inequalities that hold for distinguishable qubits and that spin squeezing may not be necessary to achieve sub-shot noise accuracies in ultra-cold atom interferometry.

Abstract:
Based on total variance of a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type operators, the generalized EPR entangled states in continuous variable systems are defined. We show that such entangled states must correspond with two-mode squeezing states whether these states are Gaussian or not and whether they are pure or not. With help of the relation between the total variance and the entanglement, the degree of such entanglement is also defined. Through analyzing some specific cases, we see that this method is very convenient and easy in practical application. In addition, an entangled state with no squeezing is studied, which reveals that there certainly exist something unknown about entanglement in continuous variable systems.

Abstract:
We study entanglement and spin squeezing in the ground state of three qubits interacting via the transverse Ising model. We give analytical results for the entanglement and spin squeezing, and a quantitative relation between the concurrence, quantifying the entanglement of two spins, and the spin squeezing parameter, measuring the degree of squeezing. Finally, by appropriately choosing the exchange interaction and strengths of the transverse field, we propose a scheme for generating entangled W state from an unentangled initial state with all spins down.

Abstract:
A complete set of generalized spin-squeezing inequalities is derived for an ensemble of particles with an arbitrary spin. Our conditions are formulated with the first and second moments of the collective angular momentum coordinates. A method for mapping the spin-squeezing inequalities for spin-1/2 particles to entanglement conditions for spin-j particles is also presented. We apply our mapping to obtain a generalization of the original spin-squeezing inequality to higher spins. We show that, for large particle numbers, a spin-squeezing parameter for entanglement detection based on one of our inequalities is strictly stronger than the original spin-squeezing parameter defined in [A. Sorensen et al., Nature 409, 63 (2001)]. We present a coordinate system independent form of our inequalities that contains, besides the correlation and covariance tensors of the collective angular momentum operators, the nematic tensor appearing in the theory of spin nematics. Finally, we discuss how to measure the quantities appearing in our inequalities in experiments.

Abstract:
We show that two definitions of spin squeezing extensively used in the literature [M. Kitagawa and M. Ueda, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 47}, 5138 (1993) and D.J. Wineland {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 50}, 67 (1994)] give different predictions of entanglement in the two-atom Dicke system. We analyze differences between the definitions and show that the Kitagawa and Ueda's spin squeezing parameter is a better measure of entanglement than the commonly used spectroscopic spin squeezing parameter. We illustrate this relation by examining different examples of a driven two-atom Dicke system in which spin squeezing and entanglement arise dynamically. We give an explanation of the source of the difference in the prediction of entanglement using the negativity criterion for entanglement. For the examples discussed, we find that the Kitagawa and Ueda's spin squeezing parameter is the sufficient and necessary condition for entanglement.

Abstract:
We determine the complete set of generalized spin squeezing inequalities. These are entanglement criteria that can be used for the experimental detection of entanglement in a system of spin-1/2 particles in which the spins cannot be individually addressed. They can also be used to show the presence of bound entanglement in the thermal states of several spin models.

Abstract:
We derive spin squeezing inequalities that generalize the concept of the spin squeezing parameter and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for genuine 2-, or 3- qubit entanglement for symmetric states, and sufficient condition for general states of $N$ qubits. Our inequalities have a clear physical interpretation as entanglement witnesses, can be relatively easy measured, and are given by complex, but {\it elementary} expressions.

Abstract:
Quantum entanglement reflects itself through non-local correlations among the subsystems of a quantum system. This thesis focuses on constructing a complete set of local invariants characterizing symmetric two qubit systems and analyzing the pairwise entanglement properties like collective spin squeezing - exhibited by multiqubits - in terms of two qubit entanglement invariants. Further, the collective pairwise entanglement properties of symmetric multiqubit states are shown to be captured entirely by the off diagonal block of the covariance matrix.

Abstract:
We analyze the relation between the entanglement and spin-squeezing parameter in the two-atom Dicke model and identify the source of the discrepancy recently reported by Banerjee and Zhou et al that one can observe entanglement without spin squeezing. Our calculations demonstrate that there are two criteria for entanglement, one associated with the two-photon coherences that create two-photon entangled states, and the other associated with populations of the collective states. We find that the spin-squeezing parameter correctly predicts entanglement in the two-atom Dicke system only if it is associated with two-photon entangled states, but fails to predict entanglement when it is associated with the entangled symmetric state. This explicitly identifies the source of the discrepancy and explains why the system can be entangled without spin-squeezing. We illustrate these findings in three examples of the interaction of the system with thermal, classical squeezed vacuum and quantum squeezed vacuum fields.