Abstract:
Starting from the notion of discriminantly separable polynomials of degree two in each of three variables, we construct a class of integrable dynamical systems. These systems can be integrated explicitly in genus two theta-functions in a procedure which is similar to the classical one for the Kowalevski top. The discriminnatly separable polynomials play the role of the Kowalevski fundamental equation. The natural examples include the Sokolov systems and the Jurdjevic elasticae.

Abstract:
We classify the discriminantly separable polynomials of degree two in each of three variables, defined by a property that all the discriminants as polynomials of two variables are factorized as products of two polynomials of one variable each. Our classification is based on the study of structures of zeros of a polynomial component $P$ of a discriminant. This classification is related to the classification of pencils of conics in a delicate way. We establish a relationship between our classification and the classification of integrable quad-equations which has been suggested recently by Adler, Bobenko, and Suris.

Abstract:
A new examples of integrable dynamical systems are constructed. An integration procedure leading to genus two theta-functions is presented. It is based on a recent notion of discriminantly separable polynomials. They have appeared in a recent reconsideration of the celebrated Kowalevski top, and their role here is analogue to the situation with the classical Kowalevski integration procedure.

Abstract:
A new view on the Kowalevski top and the Kowalevski integration procedure is presented. For more than a century, the Kowalevski 1889 case, attracts full attention of a wide community as the highlight of the classical theory of integrable systems. Despite hundreds of papers on the subject, the Kowalevski integration is still understood as a magic recipe, an unbelievable sequence of skilful tricks, unexpected identities and smart changes of variables. The novelty of our present approach is based on our four observations. The first one is that the so-called fundamental Kowalevski equation is an instance of a pencil equation of the theory of conics which leads us to a new geometric interpretation of the Kowalevski variables $w, x_1, x_2$ as the pencil parameter and the Darboux coordinates, respectively. The second is observation of the key algebraic property of the pencil equation which is followed by introduction and study of a new class of {\bf discriminantly separable polynomials}. All steps of the Kowalevski integration procedure are now derived as easy and transparent logical consequences of our theory of discriminantly separable polynomials. The third observation connects the Kowalevski integration and the pencil equation with the theory of multi-valued groups. The Kowalevski change of variables is now recognized as an example of a two-valued group operation and its action. The final observation is surprising equivalence of the associativity of the two-valued group operation and its action to $n=3$ case of the Great Poncelet Theorem for pencils of conics.

Abstract:
Examples of twisted forms of finite étale extensions and separable polynomials are calculated using Mayer-Vietoris sequences for non-abelian cohomology.

Abstract:
We review the separation of variables for the Kowalevski top and for its generalization to the algebra o(4). We notice that the corresponding separation equations allow an interpretation of the Kowalevski top as a B2 integrable lattice. Consequently, we apply the quadratic r-matrix formalism to construct a new 2x2 Lax matrix for the top, which is responsible for its separation of variables.

Abstract:
For the Kowalevski gyrostat change of variables similar to that of the Kowalevski top is done. We establish one to one correspondence between the Kowalevski gyrostat and the Clebsch system and demonstrate that Kowalevski variables for the gyrostat practically coincide with elliptic coordinates on sphere for the Clebsch case. Equivalence of considered integrable systems allows to construct two Lax matrices for the gyrostat using known rational and elliptic Lax matrices for the Clebsch model. Associated with these matrices solutions of the Clebsch system and, therefore, of the Kowalevski gyrostat problem are discussed. The Kotter solution of the Clebsch system in modern notation is presented in detail.

Abstract:
Deformations of the known polynomial Poisson pencils associated with the Kowalevski top are studied. As a result we find new variables of separation from the one of the Yehia systems and new bi-Hamiltonian description of the integrable deformation of the Kowalevski gyrostat in two fields proposed by Sokolov and Tsiganov.

Abstract:
We construct a Poisson map between manifolds with linear Poisson brackets corresponding to the Lie algebras $e(3)$ and $so(4)$. Using this map we establish a connection between the deformed Kowalevski top on $e(3)$ proposed by Sokolov and the Kowalevski top on $so(4)$. The connection between these systems leads to the separation of variables for the deformed system on $e(3)$ and yields the natural $5\times 5$ Lax pair for the Kowalevski top on $so(4)$.