Abstract:
This paper is concerned with multidimensional Euler-Poisson equations for plasmas. The equations take the form of Euler equations for the conservation laws of the mass density and current density for charge-carriers (electrons and ions), coupled to a Poisson equation for the electrostatic potential. We study the limit to zero of some physical parameters which arise in the scaled Euler-Poisson equations, more precisely, which is the limit of vanishing ratio of the electron mass to the ion mass. When the initial data are small in critical Besov spaces, by virtue of the ``Shizuta-Kawashima" skew-symmetry condition, we establish the uniform global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions. Then we develop new frequency-localization Strichartz-type estimates for the equation of acoustics (a modified wave equation) with the aid of the detailed analysis of the semigroup formulation generated by this modified wave operator. Finally, it is shown that the uniform classical solutions converge towards that of the incompressible Euler equations (for \textit{ill-prepared} initial data) in a refined way as the scaled electron-mass tends to zero.

Abstract:
In this paper we investigate the zero dielectric constant limit to the non-isentropic compressible Euler-Maxwell system. We justify this singular limit rigorously in the framework of smooth solutions and obtain the non-isentropic compressible magnetohydrodynamic equations as the dielectric constant tends to zero.

Abstract:
We consider the free-boundary motion of two perfect incompressible fluids with different densities $\rho_+$ and $\rho_-$, separated by a surface of discontinuity along which the pressure experiences a jump proportional to the mean curvature by a factor $\epsilon^2$. Assuming the Raileigh-Taylor sign condition and $\rho_- \leq \epsilon^{3/2}$ we prove energy estimates uniform in $\rho_-$ and $\epsilon$. As a consequence we obtain convergence of solutions of the interface problem to solutions of the free-boundary Euler equations in vacuum without surface tension as $\epsilon$ and $\rho_-$ tend to zero.

Abstract:
We prove that the 3-D compressible Euler equations with surface tension along the moving free-boundary are well-posed. Specifically, we consider isentropic dynamics and consider an equation of state, modeling a liquid, given by Courant and Friedrichs as $p(\rho) = \alpha \rho^ \gamma - \beta$ for consants $\gamma >1$ and $ \alpha, \beta > 0$. The analysis is made difficult by two competing nonlinearities associated with the potential energy: compression in the bulk, and surface area dynamics on the free-boundary. Unlike the analysis of the incompressible Euler equations, wherein boundary regularity controls regularity in the interior, the compressible Euler equation require the additional analysis of nonlinear wave equations generating sound waves. An existence theory is developed by a specially chosen parabolic regularization together with the vanishing viscosity method. The artificial parabolic term is chosen so as to be asymptotically consistent with the Euler equations in the limit of zero viscosity. Having solutions for the positive surface tension problem, we proceed to obtain a priori estimates which are independent of the surface tension parameter. This requires choosing initial data which satisfy the Taylor sign condition. By passing to the limit of zero surface tension, we prove the well-posedness of the compressible Euler system without surface on the free-boundary, and without derivative loss.

Abstract:
Using the weak factorization theorem we give a simple presentation for the value group of the universal Euler characteristic with compact support for varieties of characteristic zero and describe the value group of the universal Euler characteristic of pairs. This gives a new proof for the existence of natural Euler characteristics with values in the Grothendieck group of Chow motives. A generalization of the presentation to the relative setting allows us to define duality and the six operations.

Abstract:
The problem of definition of zero modes for quantum Liouville model is discussed and corresponding Hilbert space representation is constructed.

Abstract:
Based on the Euler-Lagrange cohomology groups $H_{EL}^{(2k-1)}({\cal M}^{2n}) (1 \leqslant k\leqslant n)$ on symplectic manifold $({\cal M}^{2n}, \omega)$, their properties and a kind of classification of vector fields on the manifold, we generalize Liouville's theorem in classical mechanics to two sequences, the symplectic(-like) and the Hamiltonian-(like) Liouville's theorems. This also generalizes Noether's theorem, since the sequence of symplectic(-like) Liouville's theorems link to the cohomology directly.

Abstract:
Motivated by the supersymmetric extension of Liouville theory in the recent physics literature, we couple the standard Liouville functional with a spinor field term. The resulting functional is conformally invariant. We study geometric and analytic aspects of the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations, culminating in a blow up analysis.

Abstract:
We discuss cosmology in the context of Liouville strings, characterized by a central-charge deficit Q^2, in which target time is identified with (the world-sheet zero mode of the) Liouville field: Q-Cosmology. We use a specific example of colliding brane worlds to illustrate the phase diagram of this cosmological framework. The collision provides the necessary initial cosmological instability, expressed as a departure from conformal invariance in the underlying string model. The brane motion provides a way of breaking target-space supersymmetry, and leads to various phases of the brane and bulk Universes. Specifically, we find a hot metastable phase for the bulk string Universe soon after the brane collision in which supersymmetry is broken, which we describe by means of a subcritical world-sheet sigma model dressed by a space-like Liouville field, representing finite temperature (Euclidean time). This phase is followed by an inflationary phase for the brane Universe, in which the bulk string excitations are cold. This is described by a super-critical Liouville string with a time-like Liouville mode, whose zero mode is identified with the Minkowski target time. Finally, we speculate on possible ways of exiting the inflationary phase, either by means of subsequent collisions or by deceleration of the brane Universe due to closed-string radiation from the brane to the bulk. While phase transitions from hot to cold configurations occur in the bulk string universe, stringy excitations attached to the brane world remain thermalized throughout, at a temperature which can be relatively high. The late-time behaviour of the model results in dilaton-dominated dark energy and present-day acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, asymptoting eventually to zero.

Abstract:
We propose a new blow-up criterion for the 3D Euler equations of incompressible fluid flows, based on the 3D Euler-Voigt inviscid regularization. This criterion is similar in character to a criterion proposed in a previous work by the authors, but it is stronger, and better adapted for computational tests. The 3D Euler-Voigt equations enjoy global well-posedness, and moreover are more tractable to simulate than the 3D Euler equations. A major advantage of these new criteria is that one only needs to simulate the 3D Euler-Voigt, and not the 3D Euler equations, to test the blow-up criteria, for the 3D Euler equations, computationally.