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Cycle lengths and minimum degree of graphs  [PDF]
Chun-Hung Liu,Jie Ma
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: There has been extensive research on cycle lengths in graphs with large minimum degree. In this paper, we obtain several new and tight results in this area. Let $G$ be a graph with minimum degree at least $k+1$. We prove that if $G$ is bipartite, then there are $k$ cycles in $G$ whose lengths form an arithmetic progression with common difference two. For general graph $G$, we show that $G$ contains $\lfloor k/2\rfloor$ cycles with consecutive even lengths and $k-3$ cycles whose lengths form an arithmetic progression with common difference one or two. In addition, if $G$ is 2-connected and non-bipartite, then $G$ contains $\lfloor k/2\rfloor$ cycles with consecutive odd lengths. Thomassen (1983) made two conjectures on cycle lengths modulo a fixed integer $k$: (1) every graph with minimum degree at least $k+1$ contains cycles of all even lengths modulo $k$; (2) every 2-connected non-bipartite graph with minimum degree at least $k+1$ contains cycles of all lengths modulo $k$. These two conjectures, if true, are best possible. Our results confirm both conjectures when $k$ is even. And when $k$ is odd, we show that minimum degree at least $k+4$ suffices. This improves all previous results in this direction. Moreover, our results derive new upper bounds of the chromatic number in terms of the longest sequence of cycles with consecutive (even or odd) lengths.
Injective hulls of odd cycles  [PDF]
Ruedi Suter
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: The injective hulls of odd cycles are described explicitly.
Decompositions of complete graphs into cycles of arbitrary lengths  [PDF]
Darryn Bryant,Daniel Horsley,William Pettersson
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We show that the complete graph on $n$ vertices can be decomposed into $t$ cycles of specified lengths $m_1,\ldots,m_t$ if and only if $n$ is odd, $3\leq m_i\leq n$ for $i=1,\ldots,t$, and $m_1+\cdots+m_t=\binom n2$. We also show that the complete graph on $n$ vertices can be decomposed into a perfect matching and $t$ cycles of specified lengths $m_1,\ldots,m_t$ if and only if $n$ is even, $3\leq m_i\leq n$ for $i=1,\ldots,t$, and $m_1+\ldots+m_t=\binom n2-\frac n2$.
On lengths of rainbow cycles  [PDF]
Boris Alexeev
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We prove several results regarding edge-colored complete graphs and rainbow cycles, cycles with no color appearing on more than one edge. We settle a question posed by Ball, Pultr, and Vojt\v{e}chovsk\'{y} by showing that if such a coloring does not contain a rainbow cycle of length $n$, where $n$ is odd, then it also does not contain a rainbow cycle of length $m$ for all $m$ greater than $2n^2$. In addition, we present two examples which demonstrate that this result does not hold for even $n$. Finally, we state several open problems in the area.
Cycles in triangle-free graphs of large chromatic number  [PDF]
Alexandr Kostochka,Benny Sudakov,Jacques Verstraete
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: More than twenty years ago Erd\H{o}s conjectured~\cite{E1} that a triangle-free graph $G$ of chromatic number $k \geq k_0(\varepsilon)$ contains cycles of at least $k^{2 - \varepsilon}$ different lengths as $k \rightarrow \infty$. In this paper, we prove the stronger fact that every triangle-free graph $G$ of chromatic number $k \geq k_0(\varepsilon)$ contains cycles of $(\frac{1}{64} - \varepsilon)k^2 \log k$ consecutive lengths, and a cycle of length at least $(\tfrac{1}{4} - \varepsilon)k^2 \log k$. As there exist triangle-free graphs of chromatic number $k$ with at most roughly $4k^2 \log k$ vertices for large $k$, theses results are tight up to a constant factor. We also give new lower bounds on the circumference and the number of different cycle lengths for $k$-chromatic graphs in other monotone classes, in particular, for $K_r$-free graphs and graphs without odd cycles $C_{2s+1}$.
Decompositions of complete multigraphs into cycles of varying lengths  [PDF]
Darryn Bryant,Daniel Horsley,Barbara Maenhaut,Benjamin R. Smith
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a decomposition of a complete multigraph into edge-disjoint cycles of specified lengths, or into edge-disjoint cycles of specified lengths and a perfect matching.
Cycles of random permutations with restricted cycle lengths  [PDF]
Florent Benaych-Georges
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We prove some general results about the asymptotics of the distribution of the number of cycles of given length of a random permutation whose distribution is invariant under conjugation. These results were first established to be applied in a forthcoming paper (Cycles of free words in several random permutations with restricted cycles lengths), where we prove results about cycles of random permutations which can be written as free words in several independent random permutations. However, we also apply them here to prove asymptotic results about random permutations with restricted cycle lengths. More specifically, for $A$ a set of positive integers, we consider a random permutation chosen uniformly among the permutations of $\{1,..., n\}$ which have all their cycle lengths in $A$, and then let $n$ tend to infinity. Improving slightly a recent result of Yakymiv (Random A-Permutations: Convergence to a Poisson Process), we prove that under a general hypothesis on $A$, the numbers of cycles with fixed lengths of this random permutation are asymptotically independent and distributed according to Poisson distributions. In the case where $A$ is finite, we prove that the behavior of these random variables is completely different: cycles with length $\max A$ are predominant.
Disjoint cycles of different lengths in graphs and digraphs  [PDF]
Julien Bensmail,Ararat Harutyunyan,Ngoc Khang Le,Binlong Li,Nicolas Lichiardopol
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Understanding how the cycles of a graph or digraph behave in general has always been an important point of graph theory. In this paper, we study the question of finding a set of $k$ vertex-disjoint cycles (resp. directed cycles) of distinct lengths in a given graph (resp. digraph). In the context of undirected graphs, we prove that, for every $k \geq 1$, every graph with minimum degree at least $\frac{k^2+5k-2}{2}$ has $k$ vertex-disjoint cycles of different lengths, where the degree bound is best possible. We also consider stronger situations, and exhibit degree bounds (some of which are best possible) when e.g. the graph is triangle-free, or the $k$ cycles are requested to have different lengths congruent to some values modulo some $r$. In the context of directed graphs, we consider a conjecture of Lichiardopol concerning the least minimum out-degree required for a digraph to have $k$ vertex-disjoint directed cycles of different lengths. We verify this conjecture for tournaments, and, by using the probabilistic method, for regular digraphs and digraphs of small order.
Coloring graphs with two odd cycle lengths  [PDF]
Jie Ma,Bo Ning
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we determine the chromatic number of graphs with two odd cycle lengths. Let $G$ be a graph and $L(G)$ be the set of all odd cycle lengths of $G$. We prove that: (1) If $L(G)=\{3,3+2l\}$, where $l\geq 2$, then $\chi(G)=\max\{3,\omega(G)\}$; (2) If $L(G)=\{k,k+2l\}$, where $k\geq 5$ and $l\geq 1$, then $\chi(G)=3$. These, together with the case $L(G)=\{3,5\}$ solved in \cite{W}, give a complete solution to the general problem addressed in \cite{W,CS,KRS}. Our results also improve a classical theorem of Gy\'{a}rf\'{a}s which asserts that $\chi(G)\le 2|L(G)|+2$ for any graph $G$.
A spectral condition for odd cycles in graphs  [PDF]
Vladimir Nikiforov
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We give a sharp spectral condition for the existence of odd cycles in a graph of given order. We also prove a related stability result.
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